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The Duke – Where and When

A Chronicle of Duke Ellington's
Working Life and Travels

This webpage was created
and is maintained by,
David Palmquist,
with considerable input
from fellow researchers.
Last updated
2018-12-02

Supporting webpages:
Technical details and tips
Biggest Show of 1951
Ivie (Ivy) Anderson
Jimmie Blanton and Junior Raglin
Messin' Around Revue of 1926
Wini Johnson and Wini Brown
The Other Cotton Club Orchestra

( Click here to skip the introduction )

The musical lives of Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington, Otto ("Toby") Hardwick and Arthur ("Artie" or "Chiefy") Whetsel began in Washington, D.C., where they met Elmer Snowden and then Sonny Greer in 1919.   In 1923, Sonny and Toby talked Duke into joining them in New York to play in Wilbur C. Sweatman's vaudeville show.

Not enjoying vaudeville work, they quit, couldn't find other work and went home.  Later that year, Thomas A. ("Fats") Waller told them of another New York job, and back they went.  When that job didn't pan out, they struggled to survive.  With Ada ("Bricktop") Smith's help, they were hired at the Exclusive Club, with Elmer as leader, their first known night club residency.

The group made its first record and appeared on radio in 1923, and were soon working at the Hollywood.  After Whetsel left to go to university, James Wesley ("Bubber") Miley and Charlie Irvis joined.  Snowden left that winter and Ellington soon became the leader.  Fred Guy was hired on banjo in 1924 and the band began record-making in earnest later that year, even appearing in a silent film in 1925. In 1926 and 1927 they played in musical theatre pits on top of their club work and in the fall of 1926 Ellington met Irving Mills, who was so important in developing Ellington's career. Harry Carney joined in mid-1927 and stayed the rest of his life; in 1927 string bassist Wellman Braud replaced tubist Mack Shaw and Rudy Jackson came in.  They even had a violinist, Ellsworth Reynolds, to conduct them in pit work and at the Cotton Club in late 1927.  Freddie Jenkins and Johnny Hodges joined in 1928, Cootie Williams replaced Miley in 1929, and Juan Tizol was added that year too.  In 1929 Duke and his band played a prestigious Ziegfeld musical by George and Ira Gershwin, and they made Black and Tan, their first sound movie at Gramercy Studios in New York, using the new Photophone technology.  They left the Cotton Club in the summer of 1930 to tour the northeast and midwest states en route to Hollywood to be in the Amos 'n' Andy movie Check and Double Check.  They did a short theatre run back in New York in September, before relieving Cab Calloway at the Cotton Club in the middle of the month. In early 1931, they checked out of the Cotton Club to begin an 18 week theatre tour, and never looked back. 

Duke travelled the world with his sidemen and singers, many being stars in their own right, until he died in 1974.  He once told his grand-daughter home is where the work is, on the road.  His life reflects that. His working life and travels are both fascinating and mind-boggling, something I first became aware of when I purchased Dr. Klaus Stratemann's comprehensive and well-documented Duke Ellington, Day by Day and Film by Film, ("Stratemann"), covering Ellington's life from 1929 until his death.

People study Ellington's life for many reasons, and a time line provides context.  French record collector and researcher Klaus Götting consolidated the itineraries of several researchers into his own The Duke - Where and When, made for his own use, but generously shared that document with the Ellington community.  At the urging of Swedish record producer and researcher Carl A. Hällström, Klaus kindly allowed me to use his itinerary as the basis for this webpage, which is intended to be a research tool so the community does not duplicate work already done by others.  I am grateful to our small international team, for their participation, help and encouragement in this project, and in particular Ken Steiner and Steven Lasker for sharing their extensive research and for the work they've put into checking and clarifying our entries. Ken has checked at least 95% of the Stratemann citations (Downbeat, Variety, The Billboard, the New York Times, Chicago Defender, Baltimore African American, Pittsburgh Courier, New York Amsterdam News, and the Duke Ellington Scrapbooks at the Smithsonian), and almost all of the Stratemann dates against local sources, in the process uncovering numerous additions, corrections, and refinements for the years 1923-41. His finds were contributed to DEMS through its last issue in December of 2012. Dr. Stratemann relied a great deal on Steven's research and assistance when writing his book, and both Ken and Steven have been very involved with developing this webpage, identifying mistakes and offering a great many new entries and clarifications. Their research has been printed in many DEMS bulletins right up to the final one in December 2012.

This "evergreen" project will never be complete, but I think it's ready to be used by researchers and anyone else interested in Duke's life.  New information, additional references and corrections are welcome.  While submissions in the format suggested here are easiest for me to work with, I am happy to receive them any way they come.

TDWAW will tell you what Ellington was doing and where he was on a particular date and guide you to more detailed information in the DEMS Bulletins, Stratemann, New Desor and other resources. Entries in this colour are events listed in the August 2011 version of Mr. Götting's TDWAW, and entries from all other sources are in black.

Session information is primarily from New Desor or http://ellingtonia.com but often compared to other hard copy and electronic discographies. Since this is not a discography, I only list song titles once in a session, even if there were multiple takes. Session times were provided by Steven Lasker, either directly or by reference to his comprehensive discography in the book for the monumental RCA Victor CD box set 09026-63386-2, The Duke Ellington Centennial Edition. In several cases, the studio files only showed the start and end times, without saying if they were day or night. Where a.m. or p.m. was stated, they are restated on a 24-hour clock. Where I can't tell if the session was in the a.m. or p.m., they are simply stated as written. Mr. Lasker suggests using other groups' session times could help if the masters have adjacent matrix numbers to Ellington's.

Many references in this webpage use the acronyms SI-NMAH and DEC301. These stand for "Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History" and "Duke Ellington Collection #301" respectively. The Smithsonian's Archive Center includes the following Ellington-related collections. Clicking a collection number will take you to a fuller description of the collection.

SI-NMAH
Collection
Number
Collection nameSize
(cu.ft.)
AC.0301The Duke Ellington Collection #301 (papers acquired
from Mercer Ellington in 1988 arranged in 16 categories)
310.00
AC.0327Rutgers University NEA Jazz Oral History Project4.50
AC.0328Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington1.50
AC.0368Duke Ellington Oral History Project15.00
AC.0385Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group2.00
AC.0386Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera and Related Audiovisual Materials3.20
AC.0388Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera1.33
AC.0390New York Chapter of the Duke Ellington Society Collection1.10
AC.0391Earl Okin Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera0.40
AC.0415Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials33.00
AC.0422Carter Harman Collection of Interviews with Duke Ellington3.00
AC.0429Naomi Huber Brown Papers (Documenting Duke Ellington's Concert Tour of Asia)0.15
AC.0430Archives Center Collection of Music Transcriptions of Duke Ellington Compositions0.12
AC.0431Jazz Oral History Collection0.40
AC.0472Don Brown Collection of Duke Ellington Recordings.
AC.0494Betty McGettigan Collection of Duke Ellington Memorabilia2.00
AC.0502Dr. Theodore Shell Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera1.75
AC.0630William "Cat" Anderson Collection5.00
AC.0652Tom Whaley Collection1.50
AC.0704Edward and Gaye Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials9.50
AC.0740Andrew Homzy Collection of Duke Ellington Stock Music Arrangements1.5
AC.0763John Gensel Collection of Duke Ellington Materials1.5
AC.1240Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials2.5
AC.1222Floyd Levin Jazz Reference Collection
(incl. Barney Bigard's personal papers)
42.5

Most events are only briefly described or summarized, but the references given should allow you to look them up. While this webpage is based on Mr. Götting's TDWAW, it has room for more information, so I've included important events in the lives of Ellington and his sidemen. An item marked as an update may be a major change to Mr. Götting's information, or it may simply be an added reference, change of spelling, or another minor change.

Personnel changes are dated as shown in New Desor Volume II unless otherwise noted. Where New Desor relied on a musician's presence in a recording session, the actual dates are likely a little different. New Desor dates before 1943 may instead be from Steven Lasker's research, which he shared with Dr. Stratemann, who in turn provided it to the New Desor authors. Some musicians (including singers) left the band and came back, sometimes after a long absence, and I have usually not determined if their departures and returns were meant to be temporary or permanent. I also don't know which, if any, short-term members were just hired to fill in, or hired on a permanent basis but didn't work out.

Extended Engagements and Early Nightclub Work

This chronology shows each date of multi-day events separately, with a reference to the beginning of the engagement. This allows you to see all the known activity on any particular day and to more readily track extended engagements - other Ellington chronologies either have just a single entry showing the duration of the engagement, a single entry at the beginning of each month, or even one entry for each of the first and last days of the gig, with nothing in between. I try to show the known times of the events, and unless otherwise noted, a late night event starting after midnight will be shown as occurring the previous day - for example, a dance starting at 12:30 a.m. Tuesday will show as Monday night rather than early the next morning.

Cabarets appear to have stayed open seven nights a week, so days off are not shown unless there is supporting evidence.

During prohibition, I understand New York cabarets stayed open all night, until January 1927, when the city imposed a 3 a.m. curfew.

Contract wording

The Associated Booking Corporation used contract blanks modelled on that of the American Federation of Musicians. They bear the AFM logo and title, as well as ABC's own headers. Many of the Ellington's ABC contracts have additional terms, which are either typed, rubber-stamped, or attached as a contract rider. These "standard clauses" are generally:

While I did not note these in most instances, many of the Associated Booking contracts have the date a deposit was received written on them, and some bear a rubber-stamped approval from the A.F. of M.

I have not repeated contract detail duplicating what is already shown in the entry, such as the date, time, place of the engagement, or its nature, unless I felt there was a nuance worth seeing (or unless I wrote the entry before deciding I didn't need to show redundant information).

Cautions

Where I have not named a source, the information is from Mr. Götting and has not been checked by me. Most of the DEMS references were provided by him, and I have looked many, but not all, up. Some lead to significant discussions, some refer to a hard to find brief notation in a lengthy document. They are listed in reverse chronological order for each event, and I have not attempted to sort them by relevance.

The reliability of any entry in this webpage should be judged by its supporting documentation. Ellington's plans frequently changed on short notice, so post-event reviews or reports are better evidence that the event occurred than advertisements or advance publicity. Where an event is only supported by advance publicity (previews) or by advertisements, you should consider it to unconfirmed, although ads on the day of the event are more likely to be reliable than those that ran a week or two beforehand.

When relying on a reference book such as a biography, look for the references the author cites. Some authors draw on what has been written by earlier biographers, so if the earlier writer made a mistake, it may be reported as fact by subsequent authors. While this chronology occasionally draws on A. H. Lawrence's "Duke Ellington and His World" as a source, noted Ellington authority Steven Lasker disagrees strongly with relying on that book, describing its flaws in DEMS 01/2-4.

This web page is very large. Please go here for navigation tips and for technical details about it. 

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Onward! Through the fog:






The Duke – Where and When

Duke Ellington's Working Life and Travels



Back to Navigation List

1890s–1922

Date of event Ending date
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reference
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reference
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references
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person
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/ updated

1890s

1891 01 25
.St. James Parish, La..Birth of Wellman Braud, bass player with Ellington from 1927 to 1935. His surname was pronounced "Bro."

As a young man, Braud played violin and string bass in the Storyville district of New Orleans before moving to Chicago. Later, in London, England, with the Plantation Orchestra, he doubled bass and trombone.

Braud played with Wilbur C. Sweatman in New York before joining Ellington. With Ellington, he doubled string bass and tuba.

Harvey Pekar writes

'Ellington and Braud demonstrated that the string bass, when properly miked, had a more explosive, incisive quality than the tuba - Ellington credited Braud with "crowding the microphone." Duke made sure Braud was placed so he would be prominent on records, and the innovation was so successful that Duke - and later pretty much everyone else - gave up using tuba in jazz rhythm sections.'

Highlights from Braud's 1958 oral history:
  • Born on a rice farm owned by his father in St. James Parish, New Orleans. Family is farmers and brickmasons, living in Brookstown, La.
  • Surname originally spelled Breaux.
  • Played violin when he was 12.
  • Moved to New Orleans at age 16 or 1911.
  • Began professional career playing drums.
  • When he left New Orleans at age 20, Wellman was a fiddle player, also mandolin, and he played guitar before leaving New Orleans at age 20.
  • In Chicago he played trombone until his lip went bad in 1916 or 1919 and he took up string bass. Hadn't studied or read music until he started playing trombone. Studied with a Professor Jackson in Chicago.
  • Played a year with Kid Ory.
  • In 1919 was in the 17 piece Creole Band, led by Charles Elgar.
  • Went to Europe with Will Vodery's Plantation Orchestra in a Blackbirds revue with Florence Mills, returned in 1923.
  • Saturday Night Function was his first recording. It used no drums so he played percussively. (Elsewhere he remembers other records being his first, including something in 1919.)
  • Played sousaphone on some Ellington recordings.
  • Bass Edwards was a tuba player and didn't play string bass; Braud came into the band on string bass, so it should be easy for researchers to identify the bassist on early Ellington records.
  • Claims to have written Double Check Stomp
  • Denies there were two basses when he was with Ellington.
Steven Lasker:
  • 'I found it interesting that Wellman says his dad changed Breaux to Braud because so much mail was addressed to Breaux it got mixed up. The pronunciation [of Breaux] was "bro" and Wellman pronounced Braud the same way.
  • There is no recording of Saturday Night Function with Ellington and without drums. Braud first recorded with Ellington on 1927 10 06. The earliest known recording of Saturday Night Function is the 1929 01 16 Victor recording. The only recordings listed in discographies by Braud that predate his joining Ellington are four sides by Thomas Morris and His Seven Hot Babies recorded for Victor on 1926 11 12 & 24 on which Braud plays string bass.'
  • We can prove that Billy Taylor played bass and tuba alongside [Braud] in late 1934 and early 1935.'
  • 'The label of Victor V-38129 credits Double Check Stomp to "Bigard-Brand[sic]-Hodges," while that of Brunswick 4783 credits "Bigard." ASCAP's Ace title search credits DCS to Bigard and Irving Mills and shows the publisher as EMI Mills Music Inc. I haven't checked the copyright, but assume it agrees with ASCAP's listing. Given Braud's statement in the interview that "I wrote Double Check Stomp," don't we wish we could go back to 1930 and ask Bigard and Braud exactly who wrote what?'
  • 'I heard the interview with Braud in the 1990s when I visited Tulane. Since then I've bought a copy of "New Orleans Style" by Bill Russell (compiled and edited by Barry Martyn & Mike Hazeldine), Jazzology Press, 1994, a book that condenses Russell's interviews with many of the most significant New Orleans musicians. In the book, Wellman makes the statement (which I suppose we'll find somewhere in the audio interview) that "I think I'm the first person to start the walking bass." This is to me the most significant statement to be found in the interview and HIGHLY inclusion-worthy in TDWAW.'
Lasker:
  • 'Braud, paraphrased at p.112 of "New Orleans Style":

    "I always played for tone, just like when I'm playing sousaphone on The Mooche. I was always curious about things in music. Always asking questions. Anyhow, one day I went over to the Rochester Theater and got talking to the sousaphone player. He was hitting four tones at once on his horn. He said that he had been first brass bass with John Phillip Sousa for twenty-five years. I knew he had to know what he was doing and in fact, he made that horn sound like a string bass. You have to take the dumb side if you want to learn with a professional, so I asked him how he got that tone. He told me it came from the strike of the tongue and so I went home and practiced on that for a long while. That's how I got the effect on The Mooche with Duke's band." '

...djpNew
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2015-07-18
2015-09-10
2018-08-15
1892 05 18
Wednesday
died 1986 09 05Boston, Mass..Birth of Thomas Le Roy ("Tom") Whaley, composer, pianist, arranger,conductor best remembered as Duke Ellington's chief copyist from 1941 to 1971.
Annie Kuebler:

'Tom Whaley - Footnotes and Whole Notes in Jazz History
If Billy Strayhorn was the "shadowy figure" of the Duke Ellington organization, then Tom Whaley operated under deep cover. When mentioned at all in the annals of jazz, he typically appears in the footnote as Tom Whaley 1892-1986, chief copyist for Duke Ellington 1941-1968 [recte 1971].
  ...Whaley was a trained musician and pianist who began his career in 1912; ... He recalls meeting Ellington in New York in 1923... By the late '20s, Whaley began orchestrating as a musical director for various New York theatres. His duties included rehearsing acts and vocalists for popular amateur nights. ... he rehearsed [Ella Fitzgerald] for a Lafayette Theatre amateur night and recalls that he ... introduced her to Chick Webb and his wife. Whaley remembers introducing Sarah Vaughn to Earl Hines while working ... as director of the Harlem Opera House. In 1931 [recte 1935], he began a long association with the Apollo Theatre.
 ... The music manuscripts in the Ellington Archives tell many tales. Scattered throughout are many scores in Whaley's hand...
 ...I believe Tom Whaley, who considered himself "Head Librarian" of the Ellington organization...
 ...Ellington reportedly displayed disregard for his own music manuscripts... It is my personal notion that Ellington could afford such a casual public stance because he was well aware that Tom Whaley was behind the scenes documenting Ellington's role in 20th century American music... '


Whaley's interactions with Ellington:
  • Circa 1923: met at Robinson's Restaurant in NYC where Tom was playing the piano
  • 1941 - 1950: Hired by Ellington as copyist, taking over from Juan Tizol
  • 1950: Left Ellington in a dispute over money, returning in 1951.
  • Circa 1965: Became choirmaster for the Sacred Concerts
  • 1969: Conducted Ellington band at White House for Medal of Freedom Award and birthday celebration
..
.djpNew
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2014-11-17
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2014-11-22
1892 05 21.Chicago, Ill..Birth of Ellington's first songwriting partner, Joseph Hannibal (Jo.) Trent.

Trent is referred to variously as Jo Trent, Jo. Trent, and Joe Trent. Many sources refer to "Jo Trent," without the period, but the record label for Blue Disc T1003-B names the performers as JO. TRENT AND THE D C'NS.
Steven Lasker observes that except for Choo Choo (I Gotta Hurry Home) and Rhapsody Jr., every one of Ellington's song copyrights prior to 1927 02 10 shows Ellington in collaboration with Trent.
Trent died 1954 11 19 at Hotel Gales, Av. Gral. Mitre, 120, Barcelona, Spain from "cardiac collapse." He was interred at Barcelona Southwest Cemetery, Niche 6731, "Columbario" B, 6th floor, Via Santisima Trinidad 11a.
  • S. Lasker in DEMS 04/3-56 citing The ASCAP Biographical Dictionary, third edition, ASCAP, NY 1966, p.739
  • MIMM p.70
  • Amercian Foreign Service REPORT ON THE DEATH OF AN AMERICAN CITIZEN dated 1955-02-14, courtesy S. Lasker 2017-12-15
.DEMS
04/3-56
.djpNew
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2015-02-28
updated
2017-12-18
1892 10 20
Tuesday
.Dallas, Tex..Birth of Charles Leslie ("Jack") Boyd (1892 10 20 - 1966 10 11), who joined the Ellington organization in 1933 as its electrician after working with Cab Calloway for some months. He became Ellington's road manager at the end of 1935, remaining until 1943 or 1944 and was replaced by Al Celley. Steven Bowie:

'Attached is the 1940 census, which shows his occupation as orchestra manager. Also attached is a copy of his death certificate. Even though it says he was a lifelong resident of Dallas, the Social Security Death index shows he obtained his card in New York... Here's a link to his headstone'


Ken Steiner:

'You don't hear much about Boyd but reviews of Ellington stage performances during the '30s laud the dramatic effects of the stage lighting, highlighting the band's soloists in different colors.'

See also 1933 09 27
  • Steven Bowie, email 2015-03-20 with
    • 1940 census excerpt
    • death certificate
    • Find-a-grave reference
  • Ken Steiner, email 2015-03-20 citing
    • Dallas Morning News 1933-09-23
..
.djp/ks/sbNew
added 2015-03-21
1894 01 16
Tuesday
1985 04 21
Sunday
Odessa, Russia.Birth of Irving Harold Mills (born Isadore or Isaac Minsky), who discovered Ellington, guiding and managing his musical career until early 1939 (see 1939 03 23 and 1939 05 00 below).

On July 25, 1896, the family (parents Hyman [Chaim] and Sophia (nee Schifre) Minsky, older brother Jack or Jacob, and Irving) arrived in New York to settle in Manhattan. The boys held various jobs after their father died in 1905 and began their first music publishing company in 1919.

Their fascinating joint biograpy can be read at http://www.perfessorbill.com/pubs/jmills.shtml

Sonny Greer:

'Irving Mills began managing us when we were in the Kentucky Club. It was imperative that we have a man like that, a front man, because I don't think we could have done it alone without his guidance. When anything important pertaining to Ellington came up, he was there in person. He didn't send someone else out. When he made the second European trip with us, he was so sick he had to have a doctor in attendance twenty-four hours a day, but he made it every step of the way. He was a businessman, sure, but he always saw to it we had the best in transportation. The band didn't know what a bus looked like in the early days. We had private Pullman cars, with 'Duke Ellington' on the side, and a private baggage car, through every state of the union, and we were the only band in the country, white or colored, that had that. On one-nighters, we lived out of the train, and everybody had a lower berth. We parked the cars in a station, and there was no running around looking for rooms, north, south, east, or west. That was the Mills regime. When it ended, we came to the covered wagon – the bus.
  You could be so comfortable in that parlor car. If Duke wanted to get up and write music, all he had to do was put his robe over his pajamas. You could rest all day if you wanted to, and that meant you arrived at the next engagement in good shape. Duke liked to rest, but this way of traveling also gave him such isolation. He wasn't bothered with people worrying him about a hundred different things all day long. When we played a long engagement, we gave up the cars, but closing night the Pullmans would be back in the station.'

  • perfesserbill website
  • Email S. Lasker-Palmquist
    • 2016-06-30
  • Sonny Greer as quoted by Stanley Dance, The World of Duke Ellington, Da Capo Press, 1970, pp.69-70
..
.SLaskerNew
added 2016-06-30
updated
2016-07-01
2016-07-04
circa
1895 12 13
Friday
.Long Branch, N.J..This seems the most likely birth date of drummer William Alexander ("Sonny") Greer, Jr.. Various sources suggest dates between 1895 and 1902.
Chilton's Who's Who of Jazz shows Greer born circa 1895-12-13.

Steven Lasker:
  • [This webpage showed Sonny's] birthdate as 1902-12-03, the date Greer gave to Balliet in the 1974-12-23 New Yorker interview Tucker republished in the Ellington Reader.
  • ...Per Mark Tucker, [the] most recent State Dept. passport found for Greer, dated 3/21/39, shows 12/13/02.
  • The 1933 Majestic passenger list gives his birthdate as 1902 12 13, consistent with the passport.
  • Find-a-grave shows Greer at Woodlawn Cemetery, and cites date of birth as 1895-12-13
  • Brooks Kerr, who you will recall knew and gigged regularly with Greer for many years, says Greer told him his actual date of birth was 1895-12-13, and Brooks heard the same date from Greer's wife Millie (born in Brooklyn, 1892-01-14 according to Brooks).
  • In 1931, Wellman Braud (b. 1891) was the band's oldest member [but per] the Chicago Defender profile of Greer by Chester Nerges from the Chicago Defender (reprinted in A Cotton Club Miscellany), Greer [at 36] was the oldest member of the band, and began his musical career at Chattel High School in Long Branch in 1914.
Discussion:
  • The census records don't give dates of birth but do show ages.
    • The 1910 census has a William A. Greer, age 14, living in Long Branch, in Monmouth County, N.J., but the place of birth is South Carolina.
    • The 1930 census gives Sonny's age as 29, suggesting birth in 1899 or 1900.
    • The 1940 census gives his age as 39, again suggesting he was born in 1899 or 1900.
    • I couldn't find him in the 1920 census and I thought there was also a special census for 1925 but I couldn't locate it just now.
  • The Majestic 1933 passenger list gives Sonny's age as 30 and his date of birth as 13th December 1902.
  • The Île de France passenger list May 3, 1939 has William Greer, age 39, which indicates a birth in 1899 or 1900.
  • The Associated Press 1982 announcement of Sonny's death gives his age as 78. The New York Times News Service gave his age as 78 and his year of birth 1903.
  • The source of the Find-A-Grave entry is not disclosed. A photo of Greer's headstone would be helpful.
.. .djpNew
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updated 2014-06-15
2017-01-25
1896 12 17
Thursday
1969 06 06
Friday
..Birth of Joe Glaser, who would form Associated Booking Corporation, Ellington's booking agent from July/August 1951 to the end of Duke's life.

In his column widely published June 12, 1969, syndicated columnist Jack O'Brian wrote that Glaser had more than 1,000 clients.

Cohen describes a rather acrimonious relationship between Ellington and Glaser.
  • Jack O'Brian's Voice of Broadway, The Jersey Journal and Jersey Observer, 1969-06-12 p.29
  • Email S. Lasker-Palmquist 2016-06-30
  • Harvey G. Cohen, Duke Ellington's America, University of Chicago Press, 2010, pp.362-364
..
.S.LaskerNew
added 2016-06-30
updated
2016-07-02
1897 05 23
Sunday
.Burkeville, Va..Birth of Fred Guy (1897 05 23 - 1971 11 22) who would join Ellington on banjo in 1924 and later switch to guitar.
.
List of United States Citizens, p.9,Passenger list, S.S. Ile de France, arriving New York 1939 05 10..
.djpNew
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2016-08-09
1898 01 03
Monday
.Washington, D.C..James Edward Ellington married Daisy Kennedy, who would be 19 years old the next day. Their marriage licence is one of several listed in the Washington Evening Star, 1898-01-04, p.2.

Tucker reports they had a child before Duke, and who died in infancy.
Duke's son Mercer wrote that while she was pregnant with Duke, Daisy survived a ferryboat sinking.
  • Mark S. Tucker, Ellington, the Early Years, University of Illinois Press, 1991, ("Early Years") p.16
  • Mercer Ellington, Duke Ellington in Person, An Intimate Memoir, Da Capo Press, Boston, 1979 ("DEIP"), p.7
..
.djpNew
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2013-10-05
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2015-04-18
1899 04 29
Saturday
. Washington, D.C.Grandparents' home
2129 Ward Place N.W.
Birth of Edward Kennedy ("Duke") Ellington.

Lawrence reports that when he was a child, Ellington's home had two pianos, which I have not yet seen reported in other biographies.

Several biographies report mother Daisy played well and father James Edward Ellington played by ear and sang excerpts from operas and operettas. JE would also lead his friends in singing, arranging the music himself, humming individual parts and conducting from the piano.

Duke's family tree, including his descendants and his long-term liaisons, is shown in the website of the Duke Ellington Center for the Arts.
.
.djp(New)
Added
2011-12-28
updated 2012-03-15
2015-02-14

1900 – 1903

1900 01 11
Thursday
.Crawfordsville, Ind..Birth of Wilbur de Paris, tromboneEmail Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17.
.djpNew
added
2012-10-11
updated
2017-06-18
1900 01 22
Monday
.San Sebastian, Puerto Rico.Birth of Juan Tizol Martinez, valve trombonist, composer, copyist, arranger. Some sources give his birthplace as Vega Baja or San Juan, Puerto Rico

Tizol and Ellington met in late 1920 when Tizol played the Howard Theatre with Marie Lucas' Puerto Rican Orchestra. Tizol migrated to New York in 1917 but didn't stay. He arrived again in New York from Puerto Rico on 1920 09 21, where he lived for a short while before settling in Washington.
  • Basilio Serrano, Juan Tizol-His Caravan through American Life and Culture,Xlibris, 2012 ("Caravan")
  • Kurt R. Dietrich, Duke's 'Bones: Ellington's Great Trombonists, Advance Music, Germany, 1995 (Dukes Bones"), p.51
.
.djpNew
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2012-10-10
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2014-09-01
1900 10 09
.Baltimore, Md..Birth of Elmer Chester Snowden, banjoist and first leader of The Washintonians.
S. Lasker, email 2017-06-10
.
..slNew
added 2017-06-10
1903 04 03
Friday
.Aiken, S.C..Birth of trumpeter James ("Bubber") Miley....djpNew
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2012-10-10
1903 07 30
.Danbury, Conn..Birth of Hilton Jefferson (1903-1968) who played tenor sax with Ellington in 1952-53 and briefly in 1963.Jan Evensmo's Hilton Jefferson solography
www.jazzarcheology.com/hilton-jefferson
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1903 12 23
Wednesday
.Savannah, Ga. .Birth of actress Fredericka Carolyn ("Fredi") Washington (d.June 28, 1994, Stamford, Conn.)

Miss Washington was part of a dance team and toured with Shuffle Along before singing at the Cotton Club and co-starring with Ellington in the 1929 film Black and Tan.

She married Ellington's trombonist Lawrence Brown in 1933, but they parted in 1948.
Obituary
Baltimore Afro-American, 1994-07-23 p.B5
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1904

1904 00 001908 00 00Washington, D.C.Garnet Elementary SchoolAHL says Daisy Ellington listed her son's age as 6 so he could start school at age 5.

While this would place him in school in 1904, Vail places Ellington's school entry in 1905 without providing support.

Mercer Ellington:

'Going through grade school, Duke Ellington was far from outstanding. He wasn't really a dud, because his life could easily have run parallel to that of Einstein, whose grades, I understand, were terrible, too. But what can definitely be said of Duke Ellington is that he was born an artist and that he had the typical ways of an artist from birth. Basically, anything that didn't move or inspire him didn't exist, regardless of how it could be explained in philosophical terms. '

Tucker says Ellington's "first brush with formal music education" was at about 7 years old, but AWL says "about a year later" (after beginning school), his mother put him into piano lessons with Mrs. (Marietta) Clinkscales after he was hit in the head by a baseball bat. This suggests Duke may have started piano lessons as early as age 6, which would be 1905, but Vail, consistent with Tucker, says he started lessons with Mrs. Clinkscales in 1906
  • Lawrence, p.4
  • M. Ellington, DEIP, p.8
  • Tucker, Early Years, p.23
  • Vail I
..
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1904 02 01
Monday
.New York, N.Y..Birth of trombonist Joe "Tricky Sam" Nanton..
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1904 05 31
Tuesday
.Washington, D.C..Birth of Otto J. "Toby" Hardwick or Hardwicke

Many sources spell his surname as Hardwicke, the spelling he used when autographing a Carnegie Hall programme 1943 01 23. His biography in American National Biography Online and his Jet Magazine obituary spell his surname Hardwick, which is the spelling used on the List Of United States Citizens arriving in New York 1939 05 10 on the S.S. Île de France. This webpage uses "Hardwick" unless quoting directly from a source that adds the "e."
..
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1904 07 10
Sunday
.Bossier Parish, La..Birth of singer/entertainer Ivie or Ivy Anderson

Ellington's first regular female vocalist was well-established in show business before he hired her temporarily on February 13, 1931 and permanently a month later.
Ivie not only sang, she entertained her audiences with a comedic routine and would engage in a comic dialogue with Sonny Greer. She received star billing in Ellington advertisements throughout her years with the band and announcements of the band's arrival in town often featured her.

Ivie made 71 Ellington records and appeared in five films with Ellington and one with the Marx brothers, without the Ellington orchestra.

Ivie and her soon-to-be second husband opened Ivie's Chicken Shack in 1941 and she retired from Ellington in August 1942. She continued singing professionally from time to time, and died December 28, 1949.

Contrary to some reports, she was born in 1904, not 1905, she joined Ellington in 1931, not 1932, and she appears to have been born in Louisiana rather than California. See our Ivy Anderson webpage for details of her life and career.


Ivie Anderson web page http://tdwaw.ellingtonweb.ca/IvieAnderson.html ..
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1904 11 01
Tuesday
.Louisville, Ky..Birth of trumpeter Louis BaconEmail, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17...djpNew
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1904 11 212001 09 18Boston, Mass..Birth of Mildred Teresa Dixon (1904-2001), who would be Ellington's common-law wife from around 1930 through to the late 1930s, perhaps 1938.TDWAW - Mildred Dixon (http://tdwaw.ellingtonweb.ca/MildredDixon.html).
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1905

1905 02 22
Wednesday
.Punta Gorda, Flor..Birth of Arthur Parker Whetsel, trumpet.

Whetsel's surname is often misspelled with an o, ("Whetsol"), but his 1924 passport application, the 1933 S.S. Olympia passenger list, and his headstone say "Whetsel," as do the samples of his signature reproduced in DEMS 02/2.

Arthur's mother was born Lucy W. Parker, and his father was Reverend Oscar N. Whetsel. Rev. Whetsel died in 1906.

In 1911 Mrs. Whetsel married an influential clergyman, the Reverend Charles N. Sheafe.

Arthur was called Artie and Chiefy, the latter derived from Sheafe, spelled "Schiefe" by Tucker in Early Years.

Whetsel applied for a passport on Nov. 12, 1924, to go to Bolivia, Peru, Chile, Columbia, Brazil, Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay. The purpose of the travel was "Professional Work (Musician)" at the Peruvian Centennial Exhibition at Lima, Peru, and he expected to leave from New York on Nov. 13, 1924 aboard the Santa Teresa, returning within a year. His address and occupation on his passport application were "148 W. 129 St., N.Y. City" and "Musician."

The State Department required a letter from his parents since he was 19 years old. His application included an identification certificate signed by Norwood A. Penner, Musician, 424 20th St. West, New York who reported knowing him for ten years. Whetsel's description was 5 feet 7 1/2 inches tall, medium forehead, brown eyes, short straight nose, moustached, small (illegible) mouth, round small chin, black hair, colored complexion, and either a pale or dull face.

The passport was issued Dec. 6, 1924 and was to have been sent to the American Consulate in Lima, Peru for pick up.

Whetsel died in May 1940.
Email, Susan Olsen-Steven Lasker, 2013-10-18 with attachments:
  • U.S. passport application dated Nov.12, 1924 with related correspondence
  • S.S. Ile de France passenger list, page 19, New York arrivals from Le Havre, 1927 09 27
  • S.S. Olympic passenger list, alien passengers arriving in Southampton from New York, 1933 06 09
.
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Lasker, email with "Whetselania" documents 2014-08-13
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1905 02 28
Tuesday
.Webster Grove, Mo..Birth of Louis Metcalf, trumpet. His is the cover photo for Record Research magazine, Oct. 1962.Record Research 1962-10..
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1906

1906 03 03
Saturday
.New Orleans, La..Birth of clarinetist Barney Bigard who will join Ellington's band on or about 1927 12 30...
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1906 03 16
Friday
.Birmingham, Ala..Birth of trumpeter Shelton Hemphill..
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1906 10 10
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y..Birth of Fred Douglas (Freddie) Jenkins (1906 10 10 - 1978 07 12), nicknamed Posey or Little Posey.
Early life events:
  • Orphaned by age 5, never knew his father, heard once that his father had been a singing waiter.
  • Raised by his grandmother and aunt; two uncles were musicians.
  • At age 5, played Buckwheat in an Our Gang film, shot in New York.
  • Injured his right hand as a child:
    '  When I was a little boy, we lived in New York City on 63rd Street, and it sloped downhill west to the Hudson River. All of us kids liked to coast down it on our roller skates, and then grab hold of a truck and get pulled back up.
      One day the back of the truck was crowded with kids and there was no room for me, so I tried to hang onto the side. The truck swerved a little and I started to fall under it. I tried to push away but my fingers got caught in a chain hanging there. Well, it kept me from falling under the truck but my hand was cut pretty bad and they had to cut my finger tips off. Maybe today's surgeons might have saved them, but I guess the man who worked on me didn't know how.
      When I got back to school they tried to teach me how to write with my left hand, but I couldn't do it. So, as soon as my hand had healed I went back to doing everything with my right hand. It wasn't until years later, after joining Duke, that I started playing trumpet with my left hand...
      With Duke, you were in show business, and show business meant just that. You're there to perform, and nothing must interfere with the enjoyment of your patrons. You must try to hide any deformity you have which might divert their attention from what you are doing. You don't want them feeling sorry for you. You want them to enjoy your music.
  • Graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School, New York and Wilberforce University, Ohio. Did post-graduate studies at Ohio State before returning to New York

Early musical life:
  • "And there was music in the neighbourhood."
  • An instrument repairman, a Mr. Scates ... gave Jenkins his first horn, a peckhorn.
  • "Mr. McFarland, who lived about a block away and worked for the C.G. Conn Instrument Company ... organised a boys' band, got some good used instruments from Conn and taught us to play them. ... One day he brought me a cornet and told me if I would learn to play the scales he would give it to me. I practised for about a week and then showed him I could do it. So, I got my first cornet, and then he started giving me lessons. Well, I got into Mr. McFarland's band along with some other kids in the neighbourhood. Among them was Benny Carter ... Mr. McFarland taught us how to march, as well as to play. Sometimes ... we would lead the parade to the park ... we'd get paid for it. So, I guess you could say that I got my start as a professional musician while still in grade school."
  • Joined the 369th Cadet Band, led by Lt. Eugene Michaels, formerly an instructor at the Jenkins Orphanage, assistant director of Jim Europe's 369th Regiment Band, and later director of the 15th Infantry Band. "He was a fine teacher and an excellent trumpet player."
  • Played in the Public School 87 orchestra, then in the junior high school orchestra. Russell Procope played in the same junior high orchestra and Bubber Miley lived nearby.
  • Professional beginnings:
    "From the time I was in Junior High School I was always busy trying to break into the business. Some of us kids used to wangle our way into the entertainment spots to listen to the bands, and beg for tryouts. ...By being around I sometimes got the chance to sit in for some regular band member who failed to show, and they couldn't care how old I was if I could do the job. They would put me in behind the bass drum, where my short pants wouldn't show and, if I could keep up with the band, I'd get paid. So, all through high school I was playing gigs. I even had a tryout with Fletcher Henderson..."
  • With Horace Henderson:
    "Smack ... did recommend me to his brother Horace - we called him Little Smack. And, when I graduated from High School, Horace [Henderson] went to see my grandmother and asked if I could go with him to Wilberforce University. He had a band out there called the Wilberforce Collegians, and he was recruiting around New York for young men to go to college there and play in his band. He had already signed up Benny Carter and Rex Stewart and a few others... During the school year we played week-end dates, and during the summer we would go on tour."

    "...The band did well financially ... when I graduated I had 1,600 dollars in my pocket and two cars. I stayed with the band for another year..."
  • Lena Horne's father, Teddy, bought a Conn gold trumpet for Jenkins.
  • Returning to New York, Jenkins organized his own band, the Jenkins Jumpers, which became the house band at the Savoy.
    "... while we were there ... I was invited to join Duke.

With Ellington:
  • Joined Duke in 1928 on, according to him, Bubber Miley's recommendation (Storyville 46, p.126). He replaced Louis Metcalf, who claimed to have put Jenkins in in his place - see the personnel change discussion at 1928 10 00 below.
  • "All of us were well educated and well trained musically and quite capable of composing. Naturally, we improvised most of our own solos and, whenever we came up with something like a complete composition that was good enough for the band, the Duke paid us liberally. Where the piece didn't require too much work to fit the band, the guy might share in the ASCAP credit...
  • '... I think we got more numbers out of a session than many bands could. And, I think that was because everyone in the band was endowed with so much natural talent. We didn't have to pray over anything and write it all out. Duke, or someone, would just set down a background to give us the chord level and general idea, and that took only about ten minutes. Then Johnny Hodges, or someone, would start some figure, like -ba'da'ta'da'ta'da'Bing, and that was it. Everyone would hear his own part in his own ear, and we'd set up and do it that way. So, a lot of our stuff was created right in the studio and, if it sounded good, we'd record it and Duke would write it down later from the record. Sometimes, he'd add a little here or there to stretch it out for dance or concert purposes, and we'd look at it the next day and wouldn't recognize it. Duke would laugh and say 'This is just what you were doing yesterday.

    We had a lot of fun with Duke. He is warm and vibrant, sometimes a little serious but he never loses his sense of humour. He is a man anyone can accept totally. Sometimes you like certain traits in a man. and dislike other traits. But, you love Duke all the way.

    Did you know that Duke developed his own technique and styles mainly by utilizing the band? He used to set us on the stand and pay us union scale, maybe for five hours, just to help him formulate chords. He'd assign different notes to every instrument in the band and say 'Play that, B'a'a'm!', and it might produce a big C'13th, what we call a Christmas Chord. Then he'd take those same notes and switch them to different instruments and while you'd still have a big C'13th, it would sure sound a lot different. Sometimes he'd do that three or four times before he found just the combination he wanted.

    ...Duke was testing for what we called techni-choir. One thing among many he discovered, was that if you get sounds pitched very close together they would produce a mike-tone. Like a trumpet, upper register trombone and lower register clarinet would produce a mike-tone that would sound almost like a fourth instrument. And, that's the way Mood Indigo came into being. Another time we worked five hours on a passage using seven different relative keys. We didn't know what that was all about at the time, but later it was the intro to St. Louis Blues, and it worked.'

After Ellington
  • left Duke in December 1934 due to illness (Ulanov 1946, says tuberculosis) and was admitted to Harlem Hospital (Chicago Defender 1935-01-05; Baltimore Afro-American 1935-01-05).
  • recovered in 1935 and played in Adrian Rollini's Tap Room Band and in 1936, at Connie's Inn, leading Luis Russell's band before becoming a club owner.
  • returned to Ellington at the Cotton Club in March 1937. A photo in Rex Stewart's Boy Meets Horn shows the seven-man brass team of Whetsel-Williams-Jenkins-Stewart-Nanton-Brown-Tizol there.
  • In late 1937, temporarily "bedded following an intricate throat operation" (Melody Maker 1937-11-13).
  • last known gig with Ellington was at Randall's Island 1938-05-29.
  • Pittsburgh Courier, 1939-11-25 p.21

    'Cleveland, Ohio, Nov.22 - Cleveland friends of Freddie Jenkins ... who is now in Sea View Sanitorium, Staten Island, will circulate a petition to be signed and sent to various New York publishers, asking that they consider publishing songs written by Jenkins while a patient at the sanitorium. The petitions, according to friends, will be sent to certain band leaders also.'

  • Jenkins:
    "...the time came when I knew I'd had it, so I stepped down off the bandstand. I didn't actually quit, and Duke didn't fire me. I don't think Duke ever fired anybody in his life. I just became inactive, and technically that's where it still stands today."
  • Haufman writes that by the end of 1935, Freddie joined Adrian Rollini's Tap Room Band, made six recordings under his own name in 1935, and became a member of Luis Russell's band at Connie's Inn and occasionally directed it. After leaving Duke again due to health, but after he recovered, he played in a small band led by Hayes Alvis.
  • Freddie went on to be a song writer, press agent, advance man and booking agent, "musical adviser," disc jockey, press correspondent, real estate and insurance broker, and a sheriff's deputy in Fort Worth, Texas (see 1972 05 17).
  • Barry Ulanov, Duke Ellington, Creative Age Press, 1946, Musicians Press Ltd, London, 1947, and Da Capo Press, New York, 1975, p.204
  • Jenkins interviewed by Roger Ringo: Reminiscing in tempo with Freddie Jenkins, Storyville Magazine #46, April/May 1973 (Storyville No. 46), pp.124-133
  • Bo Haufmann: Freddy Jenkins - Little Posey, Duke Ellington Society of Sweden magazine January 2015 (Bulletin Nr 1, Januari 2015, Årgång 23). pp.3-5
..
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2015-11-27

1907

1907 02 22
Friday
.Philadelphia, Penn..This is the date of cornetist Rex Stewart's birth in Pennsylvania, according to his death registration and various other sources.

Claire Gordon, his friend, cowriter/editor of his Downbeat and LA Times articles, and editor of his posthumous autobiography "Rex Stewart Boy Meets Horn," University of Michigan Press, 1991, believes the correct date was February 12. She recalls he used to speak of having a president's birthday.
Webmaster's comments:

I have been unable so far to find any record of Stewart's birth. The sources listed to the right say February 22, but none cite a documentary source. Further research is warranted.
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1907 05 01
Wednesday
. Chicago, Ill. . Birth of bassist Hayes Julian Alvis (1907 05 01 -1972 12 29).

Alvis started playing professionally on drums, but switched to tuba and bass after playing with Jelly Roll Morton in 1927-28. He played tuba with Earl Hines from 1928 to 1930, and with the Mills Blue Rhythm Band from 1931 to 1934 and 1936, where he was also the tour manager and occasionally played baritone sax.

He joined Ellington May 31, 1935 and left in 1938 to form his own band, apparently taking Freddy Jenkins with him. How long that lasted isn't clear, but he then played with Benny Carter, Joe Sullivan, and for several years, Louis Armstrong, before his military service that began in 1942, during which he played in Sy Oliver's army band.

While he was with Ellington, Duke used two basses (the other was Billy Taylor), and Hayes doubled on drums when Sonny Greer was absent.

He seems to have returned to MBRB for a while in 1936; discographies show him in two late 1936 MBRB recording sessions. He seems to have continued in music for the rest of his life but in 1953 his interior design business was his focus.

He met his wife, a milliner, in 1938 and would sell her hats while on tour. He also took a bicycle along, in the baggage car, so he could get around various towns to take pictures. He attended Whitman School of Interior Design and Decorating under the GI Bill and became an interior designer, later he and his wife became interior design contractors.

A 1953 New York Age feature quotes him discussing his life. His musical training began at the Chicago Music School and with the Chicago Defender Band, which included Lionel Hampton, Big Sid Catlett, Billy Taylor and Billy Franklin, and later, Nat (King) Cole. He joined the union in 1924, and worked for a year on drums with Jelly Roll Morton, before joining Earl Hines on tuba. He played in Mills' Blue Rhythm Band in the early 1930s and was its playing manager before being hired by Ellington, and appears to have returned to MBRB during part of 1936. He would double on drums when Greer was out, and he and Freddy Jenkins were reported to have left Ellington in early 1938. His obituary in the New York Times says he was a supervisor of the social services department of the Musician's Union Local 802, before he joined the American Red Cross in 1968 as its labour coordinator.
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1907 07 25
Thursday
. Cambridge, Mass. . Birth of soprano and alto saxophone virtuoso and star Cornelius Hodges (1907-1970) known as Johnny Hodges

While some sources say his full name was John Cornelius Hodges, and his surname sometimes appears as Hodge, his transcribed birth certificate just says Cornelius Hodges. A handwritten ledger of births shows:
BIRTHS REGISTERED in the City of Cambridge for the Year Nineteen Hundred and Seven

No.DATE OF BIRTH.FULL NAME
OF THE CHILD,
AND COLOR...
SEXPLACE
OF BIRTH.
Full
Name
of
Father
Maiden
Name
of
Mother
RESI-
DENCE
OF
PARENTS
OCCU-
PATION
OF
FATHER
PLACE
OF
BIRTH OF
FATHER
PLACE OF
BIRTH
OF
MOTHER
DATE
OF
RECORD
2765July 25Cornelius Hodges
B
mdo.John H. HodgesKatie Swan 137 Putnam Ave.WaiterVirginiaVirginiaAug 7.07
He is listed as Hodges Cornelius on the S.S. Majestic inbound passenger list in 1933 and as Hodge John on the 1939 inbound passenger list for the French liner Île de France.
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1907 08 03.Lawrence, Kans..Birth of trombonist Lawrence Olin Brown (1907-1988)
Steven Lasker:
'The funeral brochure for Lawrence Olin Brown (d. September 5, 1988) contains an brief overview of his life before meeting Ellington...:

  Lawrence Olen Brown was named for the Kansas University town in which he was born August 3, 1907. His father, Rev. John Merrill Brown, pastor of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, led the singing of the congregation. His mother, Maggie, played the organ. His older brother, Merrill, Lawrence, and his younger brother, Harold, sang in the choir. That was the beginning of his musical background. All three men became musicians distinguished in their fields.
  Lawrence played piano, violin, tuba and alto saxophone, but settled on the trombone as his favorite instrument[....]
  When Lawrence was four years old, Rev. Brown was sent to Oakland, California to pastor. There Lawrence grew up, playing in church accompanying the choir. During his teenage years, his father was sent to minister at the AME Church at 8th and Towne Streets in Los Angeles, California. The family settled in Pasadena where Rev. Brown founded another AME Church which was named Brown Chapel for him and which remains there today.
  In Pasadena, Lawrence attended high school and Pasadena Junior College where he studied medicine intending to become a doctor. But he began playing numerous engagements with local orchestras. His first professional appearance was at the Aimee Semple McPherson Temple in Los Angeles before an audience of more than 6,000 people. He joined the Les Hite Band playing at Sebastian's Cotton Club in Culver City. He also played in studio bands for movies.'


Brown met Irving Mills and Duke Ellington in Los Angeles in March 1932 and left town with the band on April 2 that year. He rehearsed with the band during its Hartford, Conn. engagement (week of 1932 04 08) but was not allowed to perform with the Ellington orchestra until it grew to 14 musicians with the return of Toby Hardwick, which may have been as late as May, 1932.
  • Kurt R. Dietrich, Duke's 'Bones: Ellington's Great Trombonists, Advance Music, Germany, 1995, p.69
  • Email Lasker-Palmquist 2018-03-12
  • Lawrence Brown interviewed by Patricia Willard, July 1976, Jazz Oral History Project, SI-NMAH
  • Obituary (C. Gerald Fraser) New York Times
  • Obituary, Steve Voce, The Independent
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1907 08 08.New York, N.Y..Birth of alto sax star, band leader and arranger Benny Carter (1907-2003), who played opposite, and occasionally with, Ellington over the years.Jan Evensmo's Benny Carter solography with biographical notes....djpNew
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1907 08 31
.New York, N.Y..Birth of Edgar Sampson (1907-1973), alto sax, violin and arranger (particularly for Benny Goodman), who may have played with Ellington in 1926 and 1927.Jan Evensmo's Edgar Sampson solography...djpNew
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1908

1908 08 11
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y..Birth of alto sax man/clarinetist Russell Procope in New York City
  • Procope's parents were amateur musicians, with his mother playing piano and singing in a choir, his father playing violin.
  • Russell and a brother started violin lessons when he was six and he played in the first violin section of the Commerce High School Orchestra.
  • His mother bought him an Albert system clarinet when he was 14, and he played Albert with Ellington. He joined the 369th Cadet Boys' Band and when he was sixteen or seventeen, his mother gave him an alto sax.
  • Russell's first professional gigs were around age 18 and got his first steady job doubling alto sax and clarinet in a 5 piece dance school band in 1927.
  • He later joined Henry Sapiro's [recte Henri Saparo] 10-piece band at the Bamboo Inn, after which he took a dance school band job again, working for various band leaders including Jelly Roll Morton, who took the group on the road as Jelly Roll Morton and his Red Hot Peppers.
  • He worked with Omer Simeon, who, with Bigard and Buster Bailey, influenced his style.
  • Procope's experience before Ellington included McKinney's Cotton Pickers in Detroit, a one-nighter in Washington D.C. with Ellington, Benny Carter, Chick Webb, Fletcher Henderson, Tiny Bradshaw, Ralph Cooper, Teddy Hill (1934-1937), and the John Kirby Sextet (1937-1943).
  • Drafted in 1943, he played in army bands in New York, Kentucky and Arizona, and was able to play outside gigs. When his regiment was due to go overseas, he was tranferred to the Medical Corps, received some training as a medic and then was returned to the army band until October 1945.
  • Procope freelanced, played a guest solo in an Ellington broadcast, and rejoined the Kirby sextet.
  • In April 1946 Ellington called to ask him to play a Saturday afternoon broadcast in Worcester, Mass. (1946 04 27), replacing Hardwick that evening as well, and day to day for the next 10 days. He appears then to have been offered a permanent job, and played lead alto until 1950, when he was recorded on clarinet in Mood Indigo.
  • He would sometimes sub for Carney on bari sax and Ellington bought him a bass sax which he still had in 1979.
  • Russell stayed with the Ellington orchestra until Duke's death.
  • He played once with the Duke Ellington Orchestra under Mercer Ellington, and from 1974 to 1978 he played in a trio with Sonny Greer and Brooks Kerr before joining a quintet.
  • Procope died in New York 1981 01 21, predeceased by his wife Helen, who died in late 1980.

Unsourced Procope quote on http://ellingtonweb.ca:

'I enjoyed every day I was a member of the Ellington band, even though it was gruelling trying to keep up with Duke. But I knew I was a part of something that was very special, something that would never die. But the biggest joy I had, and I think the other musicians had too, was the music. Duke constantly surprised me. Musically, I could never predict what was going on in Duke's head.'

Thomas T. Reed, JIMMY HAMILTON AND RUSSELL PROCOPE: THE CLARINET SOLOISTS OF THE DUKE ELLINGTON ORCHESTRA, 1943-1974, doctoral thesis, Ohio State University 1995, citing
  • Albertson, C. (1979, March 9-13). Interview with Russell Procope (transcript), Brunswick, NJ: Oral History Project, Rutgers University, Institute of Jazz Studies.
  • Procope, Russell. (1967). Wonderful, wonderful jazz, Jazz Journal 20 pp.6-7
  • Schuller, G. (1989). The swing era. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Colombe, G. (1981). Russell Procope, Jazz Journal International 34(4) p.10
  • Dance, S. (1969). The world of Duke Ellington. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
  • MIMM
  • Jones, M. (1981, February 14). Procope: the perfect pro. Melody Maker 27
..
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1909

1909 01 13.Springfield, Ohio.Birth of Quentin Jackson..
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1909 02 26.Chestertown, Md..Birth of Chauncey Haughton...
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1909 03 27.Kansas City, Mo..Birth of tenor sax star Benjamin Francis (Ben) Webster (1909 03 27 - 1973 09 20) in Kansas City, Missouri.

Webster subbed for the vacationing Barney Bigard in the summer of 1935 and played an Ellington recording session in August, after Bigard returned. He did another Ellington recording session in August 1936. He was hired in early 1940 and stayed until August 1943, and returned in October 1948, staying until May 1949.

Büchmann-Møller has him in the band from February [recte January?] 1940 to early August 1943 and again for a year beginning in late 1948.

New Desor has him joining 1940 01 08, probably based on his presence in a broadcast from the Southland Cafe that evening, until 1943 08 13, and returning in November 1948, staying until 1949 05 17, being present in half a dozen recording sessions at other times.
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1910

1910 00 00
.Washington, D.C.Carl A. Doubét, Jeweler
1402 14th St. N.W.
Chester Times:

'A Small World, To Be Sure!
  A Chester Times staff member recently visited composer-pianist Duke Ellington in New York City. During conversation, Ellington asked: "How's Mr. Doubet? Ever run across him?"
  It developed that years ago, when the Duke of the jazz and popular music world was a little tyke, he worked after school hours in the store the Chester jeweler operated in Washington, years before Doubet made his bow to Chester as a merchant at 7th and Edgmont.
  Surely is a small world, after all.'

Carl A. Doubét Jeweler's June 30 1912 ad shows "TAKE A KODAK WITH YOU" and advertises film developing and printing.

While I have arbitrarily placed this in 1910, Duke may have held this job anytime after he was old enough to work, until February 1914, when Doubet moved his business to Chester.
  • Chester Times, Chester Penn., 1955-08-27 p.5
  • Washington Times
    • 1912-06-30 p.15
    • 1914-01-27 p.9
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1910 00 00.Washington, D.C.Howard Theatre
620 T St.
Peripheral event
The Howard Theatre opens.
Howard Theatre website...
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1910 02 22
.Macomb, Ill..Birth of tenor sax man Albert "Al" Omega Sears. He died 1980 03 23 of lung cancer.
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17
  • Obituary, New York Times News Service, Chicago Tribune 1980-04-02. p.6 s.2
..
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1910 04 01.Boston, Mass..Birth of baritone sax icon Harry Carney, who would join Ellington in 1927 and stay for the rest of their lives, dying within a few months of each other in 1974. Harry doubled clarinet, alto sax, bass clarinet.Email Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17..
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1911

1911 02 23
Thursday
.Washington, D.C.1916 R St. N.W. Peripheral event
Ellington's aunt Maud Kennedy died away at her mother's home. Survived by Mrs. Alice Kennedy, mother, and sisters Mrs. Daisy Ellington, Mrs. Ella Bennet, Mrs. Florence Hartgrove, Mrs. Maire Letcher, Mr. James W. Kennedy, Jr., and Mr. John Kennedy. The funeral was to be Sunday Feb. 26 at Nineteenth St. Baptist Church.
The Evening Star, Washington, D.C., 1911-02-26, p.5..
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1912

1912 11 17
Sunday
8 p.m.
.Washington, D.C.First Baptist Church
Dumbarton Ave., N.W.
Peripheral event
Mrs. Daisy Ellington (Duke's mother) was named as financial secretary of the Young Ladies' Protective League in a story about it celebrating its 11th anniversary. The present membership is 375 with a large bank account.
Washington Bee, Washington, D.C., 1912-11-23, p.5..
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1913

1913 00 001914 00 00Washington, D.C.Garrison Junior High School(Unconfirmed)

Ellington's Grade 8 English teacher and principal, Miss R.A.Boston, emphasized the importance of proper speech, deportment and pride in oneself. Tucker dates this as the school year 1913-1914.

Vail has Ellington attending Garrison from 1911 to 1913, without citing his sources.

If Ellington started school at age 5, that would be September 1904, and he would have begun eighth grade in September 1911.

Further research is necessary to confirm when he entered junior high school.
  • M. Tucker, Early Years, 1991 p. 25 citing an interview with Ruth Ellington Boatwright, 1983-10-21
  • Vail I
..
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1913 00 00.Washington, D.C.Poodle Dog CafeDuke takes a summer job as a soda jerk.
  • Tucker, Early Years, p.25
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM p.20
  • Lawrence , p.2
  • Vail I
..
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1914 05 26...Birth of trumpeter Harold "Shorty" Baker
Chilton's 1972 Who's Who in Jazz dates his birth one year earlier, but The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz has 1914, as do many webpages.
Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17...
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1913 09 001917 02 00Washington, D.C.Samuel H. Armstrong High SchoolEllington's grade 8 teachers encouraged Duke to attend Armstrong, a "vocationally oriented" all black school, so he could major in graphic arts.

Vail has Ellington entering Armstrong in September 1913, but Ulanov puts him there from February 1914 to July 1917.

Ulanov:

'Armstrong was the leading Negro manual training school. Duke went there to study drawing, freehand and mechanical. He was deeply interested in art, interested in little else in the secondary school curriculum, and it was only for those classes that he would show up with regularity. His grades were both sustained and let down by his interests.'

During these years Oliver "Doc" Perry gave him piano lessons, mentored him and occasionally allowed him to sit in his Doc Perry's Society Band, subbing for Doc on occasion.

Vail says Perry taught Ellington to read music, which seems odd since Ellington had had piano lessons.

Perry also introduced Ellington to Hugh Grant, a school music supervisor, who gave Ellington harmony lessons.

Ellington rehearsed after school at True Reformers Hall with other students. By 1916 they included brothers Felix, Brother and Bill Miller, Lloyd Stewart, Ted Nickerson, Sterling Conaway and William Escoffey.
  • Tucker, Early Years, p.28
  • Lawrence , pp.7? & 8
  • Vail I
  • Ulanov, (ibid.) pp.8-9
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1913 12 10.Chicago, Ill..Birth of trumpeter/singer/violinist Ray "Floorshow" Nance
Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17..
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1914

1914 00 00...1914 EVENTS reported by Mr. Spring but not otherwise included in TDWAW in the year
  • Mr. Spring says Ellington wrote his first composition, Soda Fountain Rag, in 1914 or possibly 1915. Steven Lasker:

    'Source is Austin Lawrence "Chronology," p405: "Later 1914-Early 1915 Ellington composes his first piece, "Soda Fountain Rag" '

Webmaster comment:

Spring was unwise to rely on Lawrence, since Lawrence has many errors. Neither Spring nor Lawrence provide support for 1914/1915.

Ellington began working at the Poodle Dog Cafe in 1913:

Ellington:

'We had a piano player in the Poodle Dog who was one of the best when he was sober, which wasn't often. When he got to where he couldn't play any better than I could, the boss would throw him out, take my place behind the soda fountain, and have me play piano. The only way I could learn how to play a tune was to compose it myself and work it up, and the first one was Soda Fountain Rag.'

The origin of Soda Fountain Rag (also known as Poodle Dog Rag) is discussed in Hasse and Tucker. Tucker makes the point that the year it was composed is uncertain.
  • Edward Green, ed., Evan Spring, assoc. ed., The Cambridge Companion to Duke Ellington, Cambridge University Press, 2015, ("Cambridge Companion"), p.xiii
  • Hasse, pp.37-38
  • Tucker, chapter 3.
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
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1914 00 00.Asbury Park, NJPlaza HotelDuke's summer job as a dishwasher led to visiting Philadelphia on his way home to hear pianist Harvey Brooks. Brooks taught him some techniques, and this seems to have stimulated Ellington's interest in music.

AHL says he was 15, which places this event in 1914, but Vail says this was the summer of 1913. Tucker says 1913 or 1914.
  • Tucker, Early Years, pp.26-27
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM p.20
  • Lawrence , p.2
  • Vail I
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Tuesday
1918Europe.Peripheral event
Beginning of First World War in Europe.
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1915

circa
1915 00 00
...1915 EVENTS reported by Mr. Spring but not otherwise included in TDWAW in the year:
Life Event
The Cambridge Companion chronology reports Ellington was nicknamed "Duke" by a friend in 1915. The author did not name his source. Steven Lasker:

Source is Austin Lawrence, p.405: "Midyear 1915, Ellington's close friend Edgar McEntree dubs him "Duke" around this time, because of Ellington's sartorial elegance and his flashy piano playing.

Lawrence's source is not identified.


Hasse suggests 1913, "just before entering high school," and Ulanov says 1908. Ellington said it was about the time he started high school. If he meant Samuel H. Armstrong High School, Vail has him entering Armstrong in September 1913 and Ulanov has him there in February 1914 - see 1913 09 00 above. Ellington's own words therefore seem to suggest 1913/1914, but of course it is not certain.
Mercer Ellington:

'My mother explained that he got his nickname through being so fastidious. He kept himself well clothed and always presented a neat appearance... It was the thing to do then to be smart and attractive, and if he had a patch on his pants, my mother said, the pants were nevertheless always pressed...'

  • Cambridge Companion, p.xiii
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM, p.20
  • Ulanov (ibid.,) p.7
  • John Edward Hasse: Beyond Category, The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington, p.38
  • Mercer Ellington, "DEIP", p.8
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
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1915 07 02
Friday
.Washington, D.C..Birth of Ruth Ellington, Duke's only sister. The Evening Star Announced as one of several births reported within the last 24 hours, and the Post also reports her birth.
Biographical / Historical Note, NAMH Ruth Ellington Collection

'She attended elementary and junior high schools in the Washington Metropolitan area and finished her basic schooling in New York City ...graduated from ... Columbia University with a degree in biology. In 1941, Ellington established Tempo Music,... installing her as president of the company. ... Ruth's duties at Tempo included signing contracts, arranging some travel at Duke's request, and, most importantly, keeping Duke's music copyrighted. According to her own interview statement, she never arranged bookings. Other interests included hosting a Sunday salon for musicians, appearing at and listening to recording studio sessions once or twice a year, and keeping in touch with the older band members' wives. The older band members ... along with the earlier singers ... were like family to Ruth. After Duke's death ...Ruth maintained Tempo until 1995 when she sold 51% ... to a New York publishing firm, Music Sales.'

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1915 08 16
Monday
2001 04 24Tyro, Miss..Birth of singer Al Hibbler, who would join Ellington in either May or June, 1943 during the first Ellington residency at the Hurricane Restaurant, staying until September, 1951.
DUKE ELLINGTON:

' Al Hibbler I met first in L. Rock Ark. I knew he was a singer but had never heard him sing. Our paths crossed from time to time until '43 we were playing the Hurricane Club... and Mary Lou Williams and Shorty Baker came up and told me that Al was downstairs in the Turf Club and that it was possible to maybe get him to sing for us. So I sent for him. They brought him up and he sang something. I naturally liked it - but the thought of adding to the payroll was of quite some concern and a smart business mind would not have considered it. But me - well, my ear makes my decision. So I said great - I like it - you just started work. It was much easier than I thought it would be because he has ears that see. He learned song after song and soon he was our major asset, truly a great investment both $ wise and the luxury of my ear was kept in deep fat - He had so many sounds he told of fantasy beyond fantasy.'

AL HIBBLER:

'He wouldn't let anybody touch me, he had a way of bringing me on stage, he called me, just do this, 'Walk towards me,' and I'd walk towards him. I'm the straightest walker you've ever seen in your life, and I'd walk to him, walk me out on stage and he'd take his shoulder and put it against mine and when we get to the mike, he just turn his shoulder like that and a lot of people actually believed I could see for a long time.'

Ben Ratliffe's Hibbler obituary says he was born in Tyro, Miss. J.C. Marion, in Remembering Al Hibbler, has the family moving to Little Rock in 1927.
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17
  • Nicholson, p.250, quoting
    • Duke Ellington's handwritten notes for his autobiography Music is My Mistress, SI-NMAH DEC301 Series 5 Box #5, Folder 6
    • Al Hibbler interview on Duke Ellington... and his Famous Orchestra, BBC-TV, courtesy The National Sound Archive, The British Library.
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1915 10 11
Monday
1915 10 15Washington, D.C.American League Ball Park Peripheral event
W.E.B.Du Bois' 3 hour, 5 scene pageant The Star of Ethiopia, with 1,000 local actors and 200 choristers, was staged on Monday, Wednesday and Friday evenings of this week. The audience filled the grandstand and left field bleachers each night.

The program said "The Story of the Pageant covers 10,000 years and more of the history of the Negro race and its work and suffering..."

The Afro American Ledger's review says
"The one idea that dominates the whole is that the Negro has a past of which he should be proud."

Tucker says it isn't known if Ellington, then 16, attended but he worked at the ball park as a youngster and rehearsals were held at his school.
  • The Afro American Ledger 1915-10-16
  • Tucker, Early Years, pp 7-8
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1915 11 29
Monday
1967 05 31Dayton, Ohio.Birth of composer/arranger/pianist Billy Strayhorn.Mary Pettis Sanford, Strayhorn, William (Billy) Thomas, Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, William S. Powell, ed., University of North Carolina Press, 1994 Published on NCpedia..
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1916

1916 00 00... Peripheral event
Before finishing high school (MIMM) or in his senior year (Tucker), Ellington was offered a scholarship to the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, NJ, after winning a poster art competition.

Marcus Girvan (http://ellingtonia.com) and Vail date this as 1916.
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM p.32
  • Tucker, Early Years, p.46
  • Vail I
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1916 05 16.Birmingham, Ala..Birth of trumpeter "Dud" BascombEmail, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17..
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1916 09 12.Greenville, S.C..Birth of high note trumpet specialist William "Cat" Anderson, 1916 09 12 - 1981 04 29

Strong section leader and soloist. Grew up in Jenkins' Orphanage, Charleston, S.C. Formed and played with the Cotton Pickers, a group of orphanage teens. Played in several big bands, including Claude Hopkins and Lionel Hampton before joining Ellington in 1944. Left Ellington organization 1947-49 to lead his own group. Free-lanced 1959-1961 and after 1971, worked with the Ellington orchestra intermittently.
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1917

1917 00 00.Washington, D.C..In 1917 Ellington was earning a living with music.

Band personnel in 1917:
  • Arthur Whetsel, trumpet
  • Duke Ellington, piano
  • William Escoffery guitar
  • Otto Hardwick, string bass
  • Lloyd Stewart, drums
  • Lawrence , p.8
  • M. Tucker, Early Years, 1991 p.28
  • Frank Dutton, Birth of a Band, Storyville magazine 80, Dec. 1978-January 1979, p.46, citing
    • Ulanov (ibid.)
    • Duke Ellington, MIMM
    • John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz
..
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1917 00 00...The Cambridge Companion chronology says, without naming a source, that Ellington's band played with banjoist Elmer Snowden in 1917. Steven Lasker:

Source is Austin Lawrence, p406: "Winter 1917, Arthur Whetsel on trumpet and Otto ("Toby") Hardwick on saxophone join Duke's teenage band. They also play with local banjoist Elmer Snowden."

Frank Dutton, Birth of a Band, Storyville 80, p.47 says "Elmer Snowden, bj, arrived in Washington, 1919; Sonny Greer, d, arrived late 1919"
  • Cambridge Companion, p.xiii
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
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1917 00 00...The Cambridge Companion chronology says, without naming a source, that Ellington began a romance with Edna Thompson in 1917. Steven Lasker:

Source is Austin Lawrence, p406: "Spring 1917, Duke drops out of high school, begins an affair with Edna Thompson, a neighborhood girl."

This is consistent with Mercer Ellington:

'They had met while he was still going to Armstrong, a kind of rough high school.'

  • Cambridge Companion, p.xiii
  • M. Ellington, DEIP, p.9
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
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1917 02 00...Ellington drops out of school in February 1917, earns money painting posters and making music...
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Friday
.Omaha, Neb..Birth of Alvin Redrick "Junior" Raglin (1917 03 16 - 1955 11 10), bassist, who would replace Jimmie Blanton in late 1941.Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17...
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1917 04 06
Friday
1918 11 11.. Peripheral event
The United States declared war on Germany, entering the world war, which had been underway for nearly three years already.

While Vail I says Ellington, turning 18 that month, Duke was too young to register for the draft. In 1917, the U.S. draft was for men between 21 and 30, and it was expanded to cover 18-45s in August 1918. Ellington registered the following month.
Wikipedia re Selective Service Act of 1917..
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1917 05 25
Friday
.Dillon, S.C..Birth of clarinetist/tenor sax man Jimmy Hamilton
  • Jimmy was born in Dillon, S.C. but the family moved to Philadelphia when he was five.
  • His father, an amateur musician, brought home a baritone horn when Jimmy was six. Growing up Jimmy played the baritone, piano, trumpet, saxophone and (Boehm system) clarinet. Hamilton also played flute, but there is no indication he performed with it in Ellington's band.
  • Hamilton's father died when Jimmy was 12.
  • Jimmy moved to New York around age twenty, studying clarinet with Leo Russianoff. In 1943 he told a writer, Bob Thiele, that he wanted to emulate Benny Goodman's technique.
  • Reed says his first New York work was with the Jimmy Mundy band; Haufman says he made his professional debut on trumpet, and his first engagement of real importance was with the Frank Fairfax group in 1937, replacing Charlie Shavers.
  • Reed says that after transferring to New York A.F.of M. Local 802 in 1940, Hamilton worked with Teddy Wilson, Eddie Heywood, Benny Carter and Dave Martin. Haufmann has him playing with Lucky Millinder, Eddie Heywood, Jimmy Mundy and Bill Doggett in 1939 and joining Wilson's sextet in 1940.
  • In May 1943 he joined Ellington, replacing Chauncey Haughton, who in turn had replaced Bigard.
  • Herr Haufmann says Ellington recordings featuring Jimmy are too numerous to list in his article, but he specifically singles out Air Conditioned Jungle, Ad Lib on Nippon, The Tattooed Bride, September 12th Blues, Pretty and the Wolf and Tenderly.
  • Haufmann discusses the differences in Hamilton's clarinet and tenor sax styles, and quotes Ellington's nephew as saying Hamilton carried a locking mini-bar on the road so he could sell drinks to other band members.
  • Reed says Jimmy began thinking about quitting Ellington about 5 years before he left. Various reasons included the travel and Ellington's failure to credit him for compositions, including as co-composer of Ad Lib on Nippon. The culminating incident appeared to be in March 1968 when Jimmy refused to travel from Las Vegas to Washington D.C. on a day off to perform in an Ellington small group at the White House state dinner for the Liberian president.
  • While Reed says he quit "the next time the band was in New York, July 1968," the Ellington octet which began a residency there at the Rainbow Grill in late May did not include Jimmy.

    Hamilton freelanced in New York until moving to the Virgin Islands in 1970.
  • He died September 20 1994 in the Virgin Islands, leaving behind a son, four grandchildren and twelve great-grandchildren.
  • Thomas T. Reed, JIMMY HAMILTON AND RUSSELL PROCOPE: THE CLARINET SOLOISTS OF THE DUKE ELLINGTON ORCHESTRA, 1943-1974, doctoral thesis, Ohio State University 1995, citing
    • K.Setlow, interview with Jimmy Hamilton (transcript), 1983-08 Oral History, American Music Project, #580 a,b,c. New Haven: Yale University
    • M. Greenlee, interview with Jimmy Hamilton (tape abstract and index), 1991-03-26, Duke Ellington Oral History Project, Interview NMAH-AC #368. Washington: Archives Center, SI-NMAH
    • J.L.Collier, Duke Ellington. New York: Oxford University Press 1987
    • B. Aasland, The "Wax Works" Of Duke Ellington: 31 July 1942 - 11 November 1944, The Recording Ban Period, DEMS: Jarfalla, Sweden, 1979
    • G. Schuller, The Swing Era, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
    • I. Carr, D. Fairweather & B. Priestley, Jimmy Hamilton In Jazz: The Essential Companion, New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1988
    • I. Townsend, When Duke Records, (1960), in M. Tucker, The Duke Ellington Reader, pp. 319-324, New York, Oxford University Press (1993).
  • Duke Ellington Society of Sweden, Bulletin Nr 3, September 2015
    • Bo Haufman, Jimmy Hamilton, Duke's great clarinet soloist
    • The Jimmy Hamilton Discography
    • Said of Jimmy Hamilton (comments by others)
  • The Billboard, 1943-05-22 pp. 21,24
  • Variety 1943-05-26 p.4
..
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1917 12 26.Camden, N.J..Birth of drummer George "Butch" Ballard

Chilton, MacHare and The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz say Ballard was born in 1917 but his obituaries in the Philadelphia Daily News 10 Oct 2011 and The Philadelphia Inquirer 09 Oct 2011 give his age as 92, indicating Butch was born in 1918. His age is 32 in the June 1950 passenger list for the S. S. De Grasse shows his age as 32, which means he was born in 1917, not 1918.
Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-17..
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1918

1918 00 00.Washington, D.C..Ellington gets a telephone and forms a band, The Duke's Serenaders. He advertises

Irresistable Jass
The Duke's Serenaders
Colored Syncopaters' '

in the telephone directory.
In 1918, he had several bands working in and around Washington. Dutton says the 1918 band personnel were
  • Arthur Whetsel, trumpet
  • "Brother" Miller, C-melody sax
  • Duke Ellington, piano
  • Bill Miller, banjo, guitar, banjorene
  • Otto Hardwick, string bass
  • Felix Miller, drums
While Dutton didn't know "Brother" Miller's given name, Tucker calls him 'Devil' Miller and says their father was James E. Miller. According to the 1920 census, the family was James, 49, Lizzie, 42, James 23, William, 22 and Felix, 19. James, Sr., a music teacher, formed a community band and was a member of the Crescendo Club. Later he helped found an AF of M local for black musicians.
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1918 07 02
Tuesday
...Ellington married Edna Thompson. Mercer wrote 'I was expected, out of wedlock, so my father and mother had to get together,' but if his March 11, 1919 birthdate is correct, he was born 252 days (8 months and 9 days) after the wedding...
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1918 09 12
Thursday
.Washington, D.C..In August 1918 the U.S. draft expanded to cover ages 18 to 45. Edward Kennedy Ellington registered for the draft, having a home address of 1955 3rd St. N.W., Washington D.C. He is described as Negro, Native born, Height 5/11, Build Slender, Color of Eyes Brown, Color of Hair, Brown. He is shown as a messenger employed by the Federal Govt., at Chief Staff - War Dept. Wash. D.C. and his nearest relative is Edna C. Ellington at the same address. (Note he does not yet appear to have finished growing.)...
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1918 10 05.Chattanooga, Tenn..Birth of bassist James Harvey ("Jimmie") Blanton who would join the band on November 3, 1939 after working in Fate Marable's band.

See details at 1939 11 03
U.S. Social Security Act application for account, IRS form SS-5, numbered 086-12-5203, signed Nov. 22, 1939...
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1918 11 11...Peripheral event
The Great War (World War 1) drew to a close in late 1918. Armistices were signed by Bulgaria on 1918 09 29 and by the Ottoman Empire on 1918 10 30. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistaces on 1918 11 03. A ceasefire came into effect when Germany signed an armistice on 1918 11 11. The war officially ended in 1919.
...
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1918 11 24. Glasgow, Mo..Birth of Wild Bill Davis, organ and piano.Email, S.Lasker 2017-06-17...
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1919

1919 00 00.Washington, D.C..1919 band personnel per Dutton:
  • Arthur Whetsel, trumpet
  • Otto Hardwick, C-melody sax
  • Duke Ellington, piano
  • Sterling Conaway, banjorene
  • Bill Jones, drums
Elmer Snowden, banjo, arrived in Washington in 1919.

Sonny Greer arrived in late 1919, playing in the Howard Theatre, and became friends with Ellington.

Harry White, trombone, "c," saxes, occasionally gigged with Duke around this time. The "c" likely means cornet. Chilton lists his instruments as trombone, saxes, and cornet, and describes him as a composer and arranger as well; Rosenkrantz says he was a multi-instrumentalist. See the discussion in 1929 about his work with Ellington at the Cotton Club before Juan Tizol was hired.
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1919 00 00
.Washington, D.C.2728 Sherman Ave.Ellington's home from 1919 to 1922 was 2728 Sherman according to a plaque on the house. This agrees with the Ellington family 1920 U.S. Census entry, enumerated 1920 01 07...
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1919 00 00
.Washington, D.C..Ellington studies harmony with Henry L. Grant. According to PBS, Grant was one of Washington's most important black musicians. He studied music at New York University and was one of the first graduates of the Washington Conservatory of Music, was director of the Washington Conservatory of Music, and in 1919 helped found the National Association of Negro Musicians...
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Tuesday
...The young Mr. and Mrs. Ellington's only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, was born.

Mercer:

'After a short spell with my father and mother, I was left with my grandfather and grandmother in Washington, while they went off to New York. Thus my relationship with my parents was rather remote except during the summers, when I would go to New York for two or three months. I guess this went on for about eight years, because I was nine when they definitely separated.'

  • New Desor, p.1458
  • Vail I
  • M. Ellington, DEIP, p.16
  • M. Ellington, DEIP, p.17
..
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2017 11 22Armavir, Russia.Birth of George Avakian, who would become head of Columbia Records' popular music division and who would produce records for many of the greats, including Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong and, of course, Duke Ellington.
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Friday
.Washington, D.C.Odd Fellows Hall
1606 M St. N.W.

'Come out Decoration Day with
THE VICTORY CLUB
BIG MATINEE AND RECEPTION
at ODD FELLOWS HALL 1606 M Street, Northwest
Friday Afternoon and Evening, May 30, 1919
Duke Ellington's Jazz Matinee – 3.45 to 7.45 P.M.
Admission 30 Cents
Doc Perry's Section of Capital City Clef Club at Night
8.30 to 1.30 A.M.
Night Admission 50 Cents '

Clipping, WAshington Tribune 1919-05-24 reprinted in Ellingtonia, the Newsletter of the Duke Ellington Society, November 2001..
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.Washington, D.C.Center Market Colosseum
9th St. & Pennsylvania Ave.
Masonic Victory Reception
-music by Duke Ellington's Serenaders
  • Print ad - Washington Bee, May 31, 1919
  • Tucker, Early Years, p.60
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1920

1920 00 00...The Cambridge Companion chronology says Duke and Edna Ellington's second child died at birth in 1920. Ulanov:

'Another child, born shortly after Mercer, died in infancy.'

Steven Lasker notes Ulanov interviewed both Duke and Edna.


Lasker identifies Cambridge Companion's source as Lawrence, which says:

"Early 1920: A second child of Duke and Edna Ellington dies at birth;"..

This tragedy is not mentioned in either Duke's autobiography nor Mercer's biography of his father.
  • Cambridge Companion, p.xiii
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist
    2017-03-04 citing Lawrence p.406
    2017-12-07 citing Ulanov (ibid.) p.19
..
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1920 01 01
Thursday
1920 12 31
Friday
..activities not documented...
..
1920 00 00...Vail has Ellington meeting Sonny Greer this year, and learning Carolina Shout by slowing down a piano roll and playing with it until he had the piece perfected.

This is incorrect - Greer and Ellington met the previous year.
Vail I..
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1920 01 09.Wilmington, Del..Birth of singer Betty Roché ( 1920 01 19 - 1999 02 16)

Lasker:

'Mary Elizabeth Roach was born in Wilmington, Delaware, and raised in Atlantic City from the age of six until she was fourteen. She won an amateur contest at the Apollo Theatre in New York at seventeen (per liner notes to Bethlehem Records BCP-64.) Ellington suggested her stage name.'

  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-18
  • Obituary by Steve Voce
  • New York Times obituary, reprinted in DEMS 99/1 p.2
  • Duke Ellington Society of Sweden Bulletin Nr 4, November 2011, p.4
.
..
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1920 01 19.United States. Peripheral event
Prohibition became law throughout the United States in January 1920, banning the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. Repealed in December 1933, prohibition undoubtedly had an impact on the entertainment industry and Ellington's life. The Cotton Club, for example, was owned by gangster Owney Madden and thrived. Ellington's lengthy engagement in that club made him famous nationally.
...
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1920 01 24.St. Louis, Mo..Birth of James Robert (Jimmy) Forrest (1920 01 24 -1980 08 26), tenor sax with Ellington from May 1949 to February 1950. In 1951 he recorded a single, Night Train, which became a hit in 1952. It uses a theme from Ellington's Happy-Go-Lucky Local, which in turn used a theme from That's the Blues, Old Man. Forrest's surname is spelled with only one "r" on the United label of Night Train...
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1920 03 19
Friday
.Washington, D.C..Date of Greer's first gig with Ellington.Frank Dutton, Birth of a Band, as above, citing
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM
  • Record Research 128
  • John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz
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1920 07 12.Brockton, Mass..Birth of tenor sax star Paul Gonsalves
Mercer Ellington:

'You had to wage psychological battles to get things done. I had to prod [Duke] to decision through disagreement.
  Paul Gonsalves knew about that, too. When he really wanted to blow or there was someone in the audience he wanted to impress, his trick was to come in and act real drunk. He knew that any time he did this Ellington would drive him and make him play two or three solos back to back. To make it harder, Ellington would increase tempos and put him through paces that would call on every bit of his mental and technical ability, all in order to make him seem ridiculous. The greatest punishment for Paul would be to go out front to face the audience and then to return to his chair, having been proved ineffectual. But sometimes after he had pulled his act, Paul would turn around from the piano when Pop wasn't looking and wink at me over his left shoulder! His little trick had worked. '

Art Luby wrote a play about Paul Gonsalves in 2012.
..
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1920 09 13
Monday
.Fairmount Heights, Md.New Fairmount Park(Unconfirmed)

Reception and dance in honour of the club, patrons and friends of the park. The music for Monday night, the 13th, will be furnished by DUKE ELLINGTON assisted by DOC PERRY...
Washington Bee, 1920-09-11, p.4..
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1920 10 24
Sunday
.St. Louis, Mo..Birth of Wendell Marshall, (1920 10 24 - 2002 02 06), bassist.

Wendell was a first cousin of Jimmie Blanton. He told Down Beat:

'When Jimmy [sic] left St. Louis, he left a bass behind - a little half-sized fiddle. It lay around for about half a year, and the more Jimmy played with Duke, the more my interest in that bass grew. I picked it up finally and for six months practiced with the radio and with records, and then I played some non-union gigs at school. I joined the union in December, 1941, and I got with Lionel Hampton about that time. My being hired by Hampton was more or less a publicity stunt, I guess, because I was Jimmy's cousin - I'd only been playing about seven months. I stayed three or four months with Hampton, then went back to school...'

Wendell was hired for Mercer Ellington's orchestra in 1948 and after four months, transferred to the Duke Ellington Orchestra. His instrument while with Ellington was Blanton's full-sized bass, made in Europe, that Jimmie's mother gave him after Jimmie died.
...
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1920 12 05.Evanston, Ill..Birth of Kay Davis (1920 12 05 - 2012 01 27), vocalist, christened Katherine McDonald.

Miss Davis studied voice and piano at Northwestern University, where she received her bachelor's degree in 1942 and her masters in 1943.

Kay was featured in high, wordless vocals. She joined Ellington in 1944 and in 1948 accompanied Ellington and Ray Nance to the U.K. and Continent as a cabaret act. She stayed in the band until it finished its 1950 European tour.

Vail has her leaving the band July 14, 1950, without naming a source.

Davis was interviewed by Dr. Marcia Greenlee for the Smithsonian's oral history. She described her departure:

'...
Greenlee: Ah, what were the circumstances of your leaving the band? And when did this take place?

Davis: I wanted to get married, [laugh] I left, soon as we came back Europe. I came back and I never went back to New York.

Greenlee: What was his response to your leaving?

Davis: I didn't get any response. I just - I left, I truly just got on the plane that came back and I think I called Celley or somebody.

Greenlee: Saying that you'd -[both at once]

Davis: Uh huh, uh huh. That wasn't too nice [laugh] but we were on a little vacation then, I think. There weren't any dates that I remember, coming right here.

Greenlee: Did you feel some distance from him, to do that? I mean, you didn't WANT to have goodbyes?

Davis: I think that I was just so anxious to make it FINAL, I didn't want to feel like I had to go back. Cuz I had -all those years, I kept saying I was going to leave and finally I said, "I MUST do this now." '


While she said she flew back, she is on the passenger list for the 1950 return voyage by sea. Miss Davis married Chicago accountant Lt. Col. Edward D. Wimp, Jr. on July 24, 1950.

Some early 1951 concert announcements show she was to sing, but this is yet to be confirmed; it may be that her name appears because the publicity packages were sent out before she left the band. Kay told one source who prefers not to be named that Duke invited her to sing in a concert but didn't use her although she appeared.
  • SI-NMAH Oral History Collection - Interview, Greenlee-Kay Davis 1989-10-13, Transcript, p.92, courtesy C. Windheuser, Smithsonian Reference Services volunteer, 2017-04-21
  • Cook County, Ill. Marriage Index, 1930-1960, Edward Wimop [sic] and Katheryn Davis, marriage licence C40C64D1-0C3B-4734-B5D1-D0DEF7364392 (per http:s//Ancestry.ca)
  • Report of wedding, The Pittsburgh Courier, Pittsburgh, Penn.
    1950-08-12 p.21
  • S.S. De Grasse passenger list for the westbound cross-Atlantic voyage from June 21-30, 1959.
  • Obituary by Steve Voce
  • Obituary, New York Times
  • Carrie Moea Brown: Beauty, Jazz and Dreams: Kathryn Wimp's Musical Journey With Duke Ellington
  • Vail II p.4
..
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1920 12 14...Birth of trumpeter Clark Terry (1920 12 14 – 2015 02 21...
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1921

1921 00 00.Washington D.C..Elmer Snowden's undated introduction to Rex Stewart, printed in Boy Meets Horn by Rex Stewart, edited by Claire P. Gordon, says:

"I first knew Rex in Washington, D.C. that was back in 1920, and I had just about the most popular band in town, in my band was Otto - Hardwick, Art Whetsel, Eddie Ellington, who became known as "Duke Ellington," later.

"We played all of the Dancce [sic] Halls and worked almost every night.

"One night we were playing Murrays Casino and a band of younger fellows came in to audition to try out for some dates. That was a crazy bunch of kids led by a piano player named Ollie - Blackwell. They called themselves the "Clowns Band" and sat on the Floor or jumped up on the piano while playing. We did not think much of them, but we did notice Bernard Addison the Band-Man, and the kid in whort [sic] pants, who did not blow good, but he sure was loud!!!!

"Well the years passed and the next time I saw Rex, we both were in N.Y. There had been the split up of my original Washingtonians..."

Stewart's autobiography begins:

'...Going back to 1921, when I was one of the seven young members of Ollie Blackwell's clowns, I stayed in music all my life. 1921 was a momentous year for us members of Ollie Blackwell's Ragtime Clowns because we were actually part of a show! ...

"...Washington, DC, in 1921 was the right time and place for me to hear music. I don't think there were many towns with more dance halls than Washington,..." (discusses battles of the bands, then)

"... At any rate my first awareness of this delightful phenomenon was at the Lincoln Colonnades. There were three bands, but the main battle was between Doc Perry and Sam Taylor. The third outfit was only a pick-up group with Duke Ellington on piano, a fellow named Tobin on C-melody sax, Otto Hardwicke on bass violin and Stick-A-Makum on drums. There were others in the band too, but I don't recall their names or faces...'

...
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1921 03 00.Washington, D.C..Ellington was still painting signs and posters for a living in late 1920 or early 1921.

In January 1921, a young lady, Carrie or Clara Johnson, was found guilty of manslaughter for killing a police detective who broke into her home during Washington's 1919 race riot. Her lawyer filed a motion for a new trial and the Pollyanna Club, young women, mostly schoolteachers in D.C., held a fashion show to raise money for her defence. In March 1921 the Pollyanna Club posted a financial report detailing the expenses, which showed it paid $9 and $8 to "Duke" Ellington for handpainted placards and slides, respectively.

While "Doc" Perry was paid $135 for the music, there is nothing in the report to suggest Ellington played in his group during this gig.
  • New York Age
    • 1921-01-22
    • 1921-08-21, p.3
  • The Washington Bee 1921-03-12
  • Washington Post
    • 1921-06-04
    • 1921-06-21
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Monday
.New York, N.Y.Busoni's Balconnades Ballroom A number of sources say Ellington and Sonny Greer went to New York in March 1921. The reports appear to have originated with Greer. While he and Duke may have gone to New York, the event as described could not have taken place until 1923.

-see 1923 03 00 below.
  • The Cambridge Companion to Duke Ellington chronology says Ellington made his first trip to New York with Greer, Hardwick, Whetsel and Snowden in 1921, where Ellington would meet James P. Johnson, again, and Willie "The Lion" Smith.
  • Lawrence p.406 says:

    'March 10, 1921: Duke makes his first trip to New York, accompanied by Sonny Greer, Toby Hardwick, Artie Whetsol [sic], and Elmer Snowden.'

  • Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany:

    'Brooks Kerr tells me that Sonny Greer told him that "Sonny Greer's Washingtonians," which also included Hardwick and Ellington, first came to New York where they played for two or three weeks beginning 10Mar21 at Busoni's Balconnades Ballroom, on Broadway near West 65th St. Sonny also recalled that Dan Healy booked the room, Mr. Busoni helped the Washingtonians get their local 310 union cards, and the three bands which played Busoni's each night were the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, Phil Napoleon's Memphis Five and Sonny Greer's Washingtonians. (See Tucker's "Ellington: The Early Years," p289n3.)'

  • Tucker:

    'Greer may have been the one who lured Ellington to New York for a brief visit in 1921, when the two played at Busoni's Balconnade [sic] opposite the Original Dixieland Jazz Band...
     This is the only reference I have seen to an appearance by Ellington in New York at such an early date. Greer may have been referring to the Balconnades [sic] Ballroom, located near Broadway and 66th Street, which featured bands such as the Original Memphis Five and the New Orleans Five.'

  • Ken Steiner:

    'Although an early trip to New York seems possible, even likely, given the proximity of Washington, D.C. to New York City, the only indication of this trip to New York is Greer's recollection 58 years later in Tim Weiner's "Keeping Time with Sonny Greer" article in the Soho Weekly News (June 15, 1979).'

  • Ralph Wondraschek:
    'Re Ellington at Balconades in March 1921: I can definitively tell you that that date is impossible - the [Original Memphis Five] was in Montreal, Canada, the [Original Dixieland Jazz Band] at Follies Bergère - please refer to part 2 of my [Original Memphis Five] article in VJM.
      ...my research into the career of the Original Memphis Five excludes a March 1921 Ellington engagement at the Balconades Ballroom in NYC where he supposedly played opposite the [Original Memphis Five] & the [Original Dixieland Jazz Band]. At that time, the [Original Memphis Five] played an engagement at the Claridge Cabaret, Montreal, Canada, and the [Original Dixieland Jazz Band] appeared on their long-time job at Folies Bergère, NYC.
     ...March 1923 is, as far as I can ascertain, the most likely time period for Ellington's stay at the Balconades, as the [Original Memphis Five] then played there.
      Sixte Busoni opened his "Balconades Ballroom" on January 14, 1922 - not earlier. Please refer to part 2 of my [Original Memphis Five] piece for the contemporary clipping dealing with the History of "Healy's Golden Glades".
      The [Original Memphis Five] played at Busoni's Balconades during March 1922, but the [Original Dixieland Jazz Band] was not doing so (actually, [it] was dissolved from February 10 to April 10, 1922, and thus did not play any public appearances).
      The [Original Memphis Five] played at Busoni's Balconades during the second half of March 1923. The [Original Dixieland Jazz Band] was also a Busoni group during this period, and alternated between Busoni's Danceland (95th & Broadway) and Busoni's Balconades (66th & Broadway) during early 1923.'
  • Other factors indicating the 1921 date is incorrect:
    • Sixte Busoni appears to have taken over the Balconades or Balconnades [both spellings appear in print] Ballroom from building owner Tom Healy:
      • The Evening Telegram carried ads for Thomas Healy's Three Floors of Good Cheer at Broadway & 66th St. in February 1922. The Balconades Ballroom is named in the ads
      • In January 1922, Variety reported an announcement had been made of the opening of the Balconnades [sic] Ballroom at Healy's, without Tom Healy mentioned. It said dancing would be to the music of Castle's Society and Memphis Jazzband Orchestra, and "The Balconnades Ballroom seems to be in line with Tom Healy's previously announnced [sic] intention of disassociating himself from the restaurant business."
    • The Daily Star reported The Original Dixieland Jazzband was engaged for the new Balconades Ballroom in the Healy Building, which was to open that night, January 14, 1922
    • In March 1922, Variety reported The Roseland Amusement Corp. was denied an injunction against Sixte Busone, operator of the Balconnades Ballroom above Healy's to restrain him from employing Philip Napoleon and Milford Mole.
    • In May 1922 the Brooklyn Standard Union ran articles about Danceland on Coney Island which said it was operated by the same management as the Balconades Ballroom. They refer to continuous music provided by the Memphis Five and Busoni's Syncopators.
  • Peripheral information:
    • Sixte Busoni's name is found in the press as an orchestra manager with various groups as early as 1914 (New York Herald, New York, N.Y. 1914-08-02 p.10)
    • Thomas Healy's Balconades Ballroom, on the third floor of his building is found in the press as early as 1914 (The Evening Telegram, New York, 1914-11-17 p.12)
    • In mid-1922 Busoni was reported to be the head of leading dancing institutions in Brooklyn, Manhattan and Philadelphia, including the Balconades. (The Evening Telegram, N.Y., Brooklyn Standard Union 1922-05-14 p.6)
  • Evan Spring:
    "Duke Ellington chronology,"
    The Cambridge Companion to Duke Ellington, Cambridge University Press, 2015, p.xiii
  • Mark Berresford:
    That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman, p.137, citing Greer.
  • Email, Steiner-Spring and/or Green et al,
    2015-03-26, citing
    Tim Weiner:
    Keeping Time with Sonny Greer,
    Soho Weekly News 1979-06-15
  • Steven Lasker,
    The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p.83
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
  • The Evening Telegram, New York, N.Y.:
    • 1921-02-01 (page no. illegible)
    • 1921-02-04 p.12
    • 1921-02-05 p.11
    • 1921-02-10 p.4
  • Variety:
    • 1922-01-13 p.9
    • 1922-03-17 p.11
  • The Daily Star, Queens Borough, N.Y.
    1922-01-14 p.10
  • Brooklyn Standard Union, Brooklyn, N.Y.
    • 1922-05-21 p.13
    • 1922-05-28 p.19
  • Ralph Wondraschek:
..
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1921 11 25
Friday
.Washington, D.C.Convention Hall"The 20th Century Jazz Revue"
A capacity audience crowded Convention Hall. Duke Ellington's Wild Cats, Elmer Snowden's Eccentric Serenaders and James P. Johnson, "piano wizard of New York City," were among the performers.

Tucker speculates this was when Ellington met and became friends with the 31 year old Johnson after playing Carolina Shout

Vail relates the same event, calling the venue "Convention Center."
  • Tucker, Early Years, page 74, citing Chicago Defender 1921-12-03
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM p.93
  • Vail I
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1922

1922 00 00
.New York, N.Y.Moulin Rouge, 48th and Broadway(Unconfirmed)

Floyd G. Snelson's column in the April 15, 1939 edition of The New York Age, page 7, says Snelson first heard Duke Ellington at the Moulin Rouge in 1922.

Ken Steiner writes

'...there's been no documentation found of this event. Sonny Greer did recall a trip to NY prior to the Sweatman gig (mentioned in Steven Lasker's Washingtonians Miscellany), perhaps this is what Floyd [Snelson] was referring to?'

According to "New York Songlines," this club was in the basement of 1580 Broadway, under the Palais Royale. Later the corner was the location of the second Cotton Club.
Email, Steiner/Palmquist 2014-10-30...
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1922 04 24
Monday
.Muskogee, Okla..Birth of Aaron Bell (1922 04 24 – 2003 07 28), bass player with Ellington from April 1960 to November 1962.

Quoted by Steve Voce:

'When I was with Duke I learned an awful lot. I had four degrees, but I always tell anyone that I learned more at the School of Ellington than at any of the other schools.'

Bell's obituary says he had his Bachelor of Arts in music and a Master of Arts and that in 1970 until the early 1990s, he taught at Essex College in Newark, N.J., where he became chair of its performing arts department in 1977.

The obituary is printed in DEMS
..DEMS
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1922 06 21
Wednesday
.Catonsville, Md.Greenwood Electric Park
Winters Avenue
(Unconfirmed)
A Grand Musical Exhibition and Dance...Two Orchestras
  • Elmer Snowden's Big Jazz Band, Washington, D.C.
  • Ike Dixon's Jazz Demons of Baltimore
Ad, Afro-American 1922-06-16..
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1922 08 00.Washington, D.C.Lincoln TheatreDuring an August 1922 appearance in Washington, New York song-writer/publisher Clarence Williams met Ellington. Williams assured Duke he could make it in New York.Tucker, Early Years, p.80, citing a 1950 Williams interview by Ed Kirkeby..
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1922 08 29.Stockholm, Sweden.Birth of trumpeter Rolf Ericson (1922 08 29 - 1997 06 16)
According to DESS, he was christened Rolf Nils Börje Eriksson, but was known as Roffe. He anglicized his surname to Ericson when he moved to the United States. The August 2018 DESS bulletin devotes ten pages to him, including an interview.
  • Email Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-18
  • Obituary by S. Voce
  • Duke Ellington Society of Sweden Bulletin Nr.3, Augusti 2018, Ârgâng 26
..
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1922 09 30
Saturday
.Okmulgee, Okla..Bassist Oscar Pettiford (1922 09 30 - 1960 09 08) was born on an Indian reservation at Okmulgee. Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-06-18..
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1922 11 18
Saturday
... Peripheral event
In New York City, Sara Martin acc. by her Brown-Skin Syncopators record two titles, both rejected: "I Loved You Once but You Stayed Away too Long" and 'Tain't Nobody's Biz-ness If I Do."

Personnel as listed in Rust's "Jazz Records," presumably as noted on the Columbia Records matrix cards: Arthur Whetsel, t; Claude Hopkins, p; Elmer Snowden, bj.
Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2015-09-06..
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1922 12 27
Wednesday
.Washington, D.C.Armstrong High School(Unconfirmed)

The 1922-12-30 edition of the New York Age reported

'On Wednesday evening last, the evening classes of Armstrong High School under the directorship of C. W. Childs. Jr.. and Principal J. P. Taylor held their Yuletide exercises. The program consisted of an exhibition of work of various classes in art and sciences. Dancing in the gymnasium with music by Duke Ellington was an enjoyable feature. '


Webmaster comment:
The performance date may have been 1922 12 27 (indicated by the wording and timing of the article) or if Christmas holidays were in effect, perhaps the previous Wednesday. It seems likely Yuletide exercises would occur before Christmas rather than after.
Agust¡n Perez Gasco, citing the "Washington D.C." column in the "News Of New York State" section,
New York Age, 1922-12-30, p.3
..
.APG - email 2012-08-23New
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1923

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1923 00 00
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...

Overview of early 1923


  • In early 1923, or possibly in late 1922, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwick and Ellington went to New York to work for Wilbur Sweatman.
  • Greer:

    'We come to New York, so me and Duke had a room together. I had an aunt in New York, got a room. I think I was giving her $3.00 a week. We had adjoining rooms for $3.00 a week. Duke ain't never been to New York. He ain't never seen no building as tall as that in his life.

  • Ellington wrote that in New York, he first boarded with LeRoy Jeffries' mother, then moved to Forny Brooks' apartment. Later, he boarded with Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Harper when he was Harper's rehearsal pianist at Connie's Inn and they both worked at Barron's and the Kentucky Club.
  • Mercer Ellington:

    'It wasn't at all easy for my parents when they first moved to New York. All they had was a room in the house of Leonard Harper... When I went to visit, the three of us lived in this one room. There was a couch for me and a bed for the two of them. I had no access to the rest of the house... There was no living room, playroom, or anything like that. It must have been 1924 when I first went there, but I can remember Mr. Harper's apartment well at 2067 Seventh Avenue...'

  • Edna continued living in the Harper apartment after she and Duke separated - she is shown there in the 1930 census. Where Ellington lived after leaving Edna and before moving into 381 Edgecombe Ave. is unknown.
  • Leaving Sweatman, the musicians hung around and played in various clubs and played rent parties. During this first New York sojourn, Ellington would meet pianists Willie "The Lion" Smith, who was more or less his mentor, James P. Johnson and the young Fats Waller.
  • After returning to Washington, they formed a five-piece band with Elmer Snowden. Snowden, Whetsel, Hardwick and Greer would return to New York to play with Waller, but when Waller could not be found, Snowden asked Ellington to join them.
  • Pinning down the dates Ellington and his companions finished with Snowden, went home to Washington, and then returned to New York is difficult. The dates Fats Waller played Washington in early June establishes they were home not later than June 10, and did not return to New York before June 3.
  • The Wonderland Park job in Baltimore suggests they were still working out of Washington on June 8.

First work in New York – Wilbur C. Sweatman


  • Vaudevillian band leader Wilbur C. Sweatman, in New York, wanted to hire Sonny Greer on drums. Greer agreed if Sweatman would also hire Ellington and Hardwick.
  • Berresford says Ellington at first was reluctant to join Sweatman's band, but Greer and Otto Hardwick wrote to him every week to persuade him.
  • Ulanov:
    '... one eventful day in 1922 [sic], came a wire from bandleader Wilbur Sweatman. He wanted Sonny in New York. Sonny wanted Otto and Duke, and that meant New York for Greer, Ellington and Hardwick... Where "everbody" was rich and stayed high all the time and Duke Ellington, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwick, Arther Whetsol [sic] and Elmer Snowden had to split a hot dog five ways to stay alive.'
  • Lambert:
    'In 1922 [sic] five [sic] of this group of young Washington musicians left for New York - Ellington, Hardwicke [sic], Whetsol [sic], Greer and banjoist Elmer Snowden, the pretext being a telegram from Wilbur Sweatman asking Greer to join his band.'

    Webmaster note:–Lambert conflates the first and second visits.

  • By the end of February, the New York Clipper carried an ad for the group referring to Phonograph Artist Wilbur Sweatman ... Assisted by Flo Dade, and his Acme of Syncopators. Ellington, Hartwick [sic], Greer, Maceo Jefferson (banjo) and Ralph Escudero (bass) were listed as the band members.1
  • Ellington:
    'We joined him in New York and played some split weeks in theatres...'
  • Several sources say the Washington lads didn't the Sweatman job because in vaudeville, performers did half-week engagements and then moved on, and Sweatman insisted the sidemen use makeup to lighten their skin.
  • Ellington in Jazz as I Have Seen It:
    'All at once it looked like the big break had arrived. Wilbur Sweatman sent down from New York for Sonny, and eventually that meant Toby and myself too. But when we got there we found out the work wasn't so good. We just had some theaters to play and they were split-weeks. Sweatman performed every night with his three clarinets in his mouth at one time. But at night it was mellow. We went out every evening regardless of whether we had money or not, and we met all the hip guys.'
  • It isn't clear when Greer, Ellington and Hardwick joined Sweatman.
    • Ulanov, the closest to being a contemporary account, seems to suggest they played theatre dates with Sweatman, perhaps before the Lafayette, and Greer mentions playing in New Jersey.
    • In 1922, Sweatman appeared in advertisements and announcments as Wilbur Sweatman & Co. until September. His sidemen, when named, were Earl Gray or William Hegeman on piano and Buddy Edwards on drums. In September that year, Sweatman's act was billed as Acme of Syncopation, and a five-piece group by that name played in Philadelphia that November at the Orpheum.
    • In January 1923 Sweatman and his Acme of Syncopation were at Keeney's [New York?].
    • On February 4, "The Original Wilbur Sweatman and His Band" were advertised at the Orpheum in New Brunswick, N.J. "Wilbur Sweatman and His Band" played 3 days at the Opera House, New Brunswick, N.J. February 8 to 10.
    • On February 28, the New York Clipper carried an announcement that Sweatman's act included Flo Dade and five syncopaters. A banner ad in the same edition named Sweatman, Dade, and sidemen Duke Ellington, piano, Maceo Jefferson, banjo, Otto Hartwick [sic}, saxophone, Ralph Escudero, bass and Sonny Greer, drummer.
    • It seems clear that our heroes were with Sweatman some time before the March 1923 Lafayette week.
    • The March 10, 1923 New York Age has Wilbur Sweatman and Co. at the Lafayette Theatre in New York.
  • It also isn't clear when Greer, Ellington and Hardwick left Sweatman.
    • Tucker speculates they were with him in late April (see Grand Theater entry at 1923 04 23). but they were clearly gone by June 7, when Sweatman had a pianist who doubled on sax and a drummer who danced.
    • Nicholson:
      Ellington as told to Carter Harman:
      'In 1923 I came to New York to join Wilbur Sweatman's band - he was the man who played three clarinets at one time - a top vaudeville artist. This lasted a couple of months - this wasn't one of Sweatman's better years.'
    • Greer:
      'Wilbur Sweatman had this engagement at the Lafayette Theatre and so I got the gig for us, we played around New York, in New Jersey but we worked on Keith's Circuit too, but it was just four of us onstage and he played clarinet, three of them at one time.
        Stage setting, he had a beautiful stage setting, whole lot of drapes... He had an engagement in Chicago or somewhere, but we wouldn't go. Said no, we ain't leaving New York, so he got somebody else.'
  • Ulanov:
    '...The Washingtonians did not last very long with Sweatman. A few theater dates, the Lafayette, then Harlem's biggest and most important house... and a Staten Island spot, which was, as Sonny put it, "a weekend of grief..."'
  • Hasse suggests after leaving Sweatman, the men hustled pool halls during the day, in the evenings made the rounds of night clubs looking for work, and played rent parties Saturday nights. This is consistent with Ellington's statements quoted in Chapter Two of Nicholson.
  • Ellington's circle at this time included his mentor, Willie "The Lion" Smith, James P. Johnson, then 18-year-old Thomas A. ("Fats) Waller, Corky Williams and Raymond 'Lippy' Boyette. Ellington said Lippy knew where all the pianos in town were and was good at organizing rent parties.
  • Nicholson has several quotations from Ellington, Smith and Greer about how Ellington met Smith (at the Capitol Palace), how their small group of friends (including Waller and Johnson) would play rent parties and such.
  • Vail briefly reports Ellington and his friends remained in New York when Sweatman went on tour, surviving on Greer's pool hustling.

Willie (The Lion) Smith, James P. Johnson and Fats Waller


  • Ellington in Jazz as I Have Seen It:
    'I got a big thrill when I strolled into the Capitol Club at 140th and Lenox, down in the basement, and found "The Lion" working there. We went the rounds every night, looking for the piano players. We didn't have any gold, but then Sonny was good at that sort of thing. He would stride in, big as life, and tell the man . . . "Hello, Jack, I'm Sonny. I know So-and-So, and he told me to look you up. Meet my pals, Duke and Toby." Then the man would hear that Duke played a whole lot of piano. I'd sit down after "The Lion," and then Fats Waller would sit down after me...'

The Rent Parties


  • Ellington in Jazz as I Have Seen It:
    'Jimmy Johnson used to get all the house-rent parties to play. There were so many of them that he turned a lot of them over to Lippy [Raymond Boyette]. Lippy had heard so much piano that he couldn't play any more. He only thought piano. Lippy gave a lot of piano players work, and then he'd remember me. One time, things were so bad that even Sonny took a job playing piano. Lippy knew every piano and player-piano in town. He used to walk around all night long with James P., "The Lion," Fats, and myself. I was one of the main hangers-on. Lippy would walk up to any man's house at any time of night. He'd ring the doorbell. Finally somebody would wake up and holler out the window about who was it making all the disturbance. Lippy would answer, "It's Lippy, and James P. is here with me." These magic words opened anybody's door, and we would sit and play all night long.'

Giving Up


  • Ellington in Jazz as I Have Seen It:
    'It wasn't long after that that I found the fifteen dollars in an envelope on the street. It bought me a new pair of shoes, and the fare back to Washington for the three of us. When I finished eating that first home-cooked breakfast, I made up my mind I'd stay put for a while and organize another band.'
  • Nicholson p.33 quoting Ellington (New Yorker, 1944-07-08):
    'We got to Washington on a Sunday morning. Otto went to his home, because he lived in Washington, and Sonny came home with me...'

Five-piece Band


  • Nicholson p.33
    • quoting Ellington (Duke Ellington Talks to Max Jones and Humphrey Littleton, BBC, 1964):
      'That was the beginning of the five-piece band – Whetsel, Greer, Toby, Snowden and me, it was a sort of cooperative organization, nobody was really the leader, I think Snowden was really the front. We would just sit down at the piano and we'd say you take this and you take that.'
    • quoting Snowden:
      '...I had just about the most popular band in town, in my band was Otto Hardwick, Art Whetsol [sic], Eddie Ellington ... we played all of the dance halls and worked almost every night.'

Trying Again


  • Ellington in Jazz as I Have Seen It:
    'After I'd gone back home to Washington and stayed for a while, Fats Waller came through town with a burlesque show. Bushell was with the band too, and Clarence Robinson and Bert Adams were the featured dance team with the show. Sitting in my house, eating chickens by the pair. Fats told us they were all going to quit; that we'd better come on up to New York and get the job.
      Then there was a wire from New York saying that Fats had decided not to leave, so Artie Whetsol [sic], Sonny, Toby, and Snowden went up alone. Then they sent for me; everything had been fixed, the job was a cinch for me! On the way up, I travel in style, blowing all my money on the train. After all, I'm a big shot, I've got a job waiting for me in the big town. I have just enough left for cab-fare uptown. There they are, standing on the corner. "Whatdya know? how's things? and give us some gold," they say. They're busted!
      The job was set back time and time again, and it got so that it looked very bad. We were living with some nice people and they told us we could stay on until we found some work. We kept right on auditioning, but nothing ever happened. There was no work.'
  • Tucker tentatively dates the return to New York after the June 8, 1923 booking at Wonderland Park, about 40 miles from Washington but 190 miles from New York.
  • Garvin Bushell, as told to Mark Tucker:
    'Adams and Robinson were a dance team, and their agent talked them into getting a band ... Bert Adams was the piano player and Clarence Robinson was the dancer and singer... Seymour Irick on trumpet, Lew Henry on trombone, Mert Perry on drums and myself... Now, one night some fellow fought Bert Adams in the park and shot him. He got killed. So we had to revise the act and got Fats Waller on piano. We put Katie Crippen into the act as singer. One of the agents downtown thought up a name: Liza and her Shuffling Sextette. On a trip to Washington, D.C., a few of us went to hear a band in a little backstreet place. This group was headed by Elmer Snowden, the banjo player. There was a youngster playing piano named Duke Ellington, Toby Hardwick was on saxophone, Schiefe on trumpet and Sonny Greer on drums. After we heard the band, Clarence and I got into a terrific argument and we decided to split up. So Clarence went to Snowden and said,'I've got a job for you.' I kept the original band with Fats on piano.
      In the meantime, we had six and a half more weeks booked with the act on the Politime. Clarence figured he could take this new band and do the gigs, but I decided to beat him to the punch. Early Monday morning I went into the Palace Theatre office in New York. I said, 'Clarence and I split up, and he's bringing in a strange band. I have the original one. Now, I could get a new dancer, or what you want to do?' They got leery and cancelled the whole six and a half weeks. So when Clarence arrived in New York with Snowden, Duke and that bunch, they didn't have any work – I'd cancelled all their jobs.'

    Bushell's recollection is inaccurate. Bert Adams was slain February 28, 1924 (and in an apartment, not a park). If Waller only joined the revue after Adams died, it would have been the year after the Washingtonians returned to New York and began working at the Hollywood Cabaret.
      (The Sun and The Globe reported the Adams murder on February 28, 1924. In March 1924, Variety reported Eugene Shields was indicted for first degree murder, accused of having shot and killed Adams, and identified the deceased as a member of the vaudeville team Adams and Robinson. The front page of the 1924-03-08 New York Age reported Shields shot six bullets at Adams in Shield's apartment the morning of 1924 02 28. It quoted Mrs. Shields as saying she went to a party the night before with Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Robinson. Returning late, she permitted Adams to stay in a spare room for the night. Shields, the brother of a state assemblyman, pled guilty and was sentenced to an indeterminate penitentiary term not to exceed three years. (Depending on which newspaper to believe, his minimum term was one day or one year.)

  • From June 3 to 10, 1923, a vaudeville act, "Liza and Her Shuffling Sextet" (also billed/advertised as "Shuffling Sextette," "Shuffling Six" and "Shuffling 6", 'Liza and Her Shuffling Six,' 'Liza and her six dancing "fools"' and 'Liza and her Jazz Demons') played the Gayety Theater in Washington. Personnel seem to have consisted of dancer Clarence Robinson, singer/dancer Katie Crippen, trombonist Lew Henry, clarinetist Garvin Bushell, trumpeter Seymour Irick, drummer Mert Perry, and likely pianist Thomas A. (Fats) Waller.
    • Liza and the Shuffling Six were billed as a special sensational added feature at the Gayety in Washington beginning Sunday June 3.
    • An announcement June 7 said the show was being held until Sunday (June 10) instead of closing Saturday night (June 9). This announcement refers to an added attraction, "Liza and her six dancing "fools" which seems to be described as a girlie show.
    • Liza and her Jazz Demons were included in the "today only" advertisement for the Gayety on June 10.
  • According to the Perfesser Bill website, Waller was on the air on WDT in New York on July 20, 1923.
  • Elmer Snowden, interviewed by Les Muscutt:
    • It was 1923 when I left to go to New York, but Duke wasn't supposed to be my piano player. We were going in to play for a show... the show had played Washington and had broken up in Washington, so the guy was looking for a band to travel with the show because his band was quittin'.
        Now Fats Waller was in the band, so Fats came across to the place where we were working, and he assured me that HE wasn't quittin', HE wasn't gonna leave him...so I thought, this looks good.
        But my drummer didn't want to go 'cause he had a good job... So now I'm runnin' round lookin' for a drummer and I ran across Sonny, and Sonny said, 'I heard you going to New York?' and I said, 'Oh yes.' and Sonny wants to know would I take him, so I said, 'You're working with Duke, I couldn't take you.' So he said, 'Yeah man I wanna go back to New York.'
        You know Sonny's a BIG guy, so I said, 'All right, OK if you wanna go, I'll take you.' So he came up, there was no rehearsal, we just got the group together and went on to New York.
        Just as we was leaving Duke came up and said, 'You got my drummer, what about me?' So I said, 'We don't need you, Cutie 'cause Fats is gonna play piano with us.' That was a big deal you know, Fats Waller, oh he didn't have as big a name then as he finally got later ... he was well-known in New York...
        Well, we got to New York. That was Arthur Whetsol [sic], Otto Hardwicke [sic]...
        Anyway when we got to New York we couldn't find Fats...and we were there five days...and the guy who told us to come to New York and gave us the money to come...we couldn't find him either, so we were stranded. You can imagine what was happening. Then we found out where this guy was living and we got in touch with him.
        So we said, 'Look, you asked us to come to New York and you said there was going to be a job, and we haven't even had a rehearsal, what's happening? When do we come up for a rehearsal, or when do we go to work?'
        And he said, 'The reason you don't go to work is because you don't have a piano player.'
        So I said, 'That's a funny thing to say, because you said Fats was gonna work with us for sure. Why didn't you say that in Washington, 'cause I could have brought my piano player with us?'
        So he said, 'If you got one, you better send for him.' So I sent for Duke, and he came up that same day.
        So after he got there we rehearsed him.
        Of course the men I had with me...they was my regular band...we didn't have too much rehearsing...we knew what we were doing.'
  • Our heroes returned to New York and were out of work for five weeks before opening at Barron's Exclusive Club sometime in July. Ellington in Jazz as I Have Seen It:
    'Then Bricktop came along, and she saved the day for us. I'd worked with Bricktop, the famed Bricktop of Montmartre, Paris, at the Oriental in Washington. Barron's was then a very popular spot, and she knew Barron well. She got him to let his band go and hire us instead. We'd scuffled for five weeks, and here at last we were to go to work...'
  • Ulanov, ibid., pp.25-27
  • G. E. Lambert, Kings of Jazz Duke Ellington, A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., 1959 and 1961, p.4
  • Ellington as cited by John Edward Hasse in Beyond Category, the Life and Genius of Duke Ellington, Da Capo Press, p.70
  • Mark Berresford "That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman"
  • Tucker, Early Years, pp.80-82, with photo
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM p.36
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM p.xi
  • Ulanov (ibid.) p.27
  • Vail I
  • M. Ellington, DEIP, p.16
  • Banner ad, The New York Clipper, 1923-02-23 p.24
  • Ellington's May 1964 Carter Harman interview, SI-NMAH AC0422
  • Ellington in Swing, ibid.
  • Garvin Bushell and Mark Tucker,
    Jazz from the Beginning,
    The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1988, pp.45-47
  • "Discovering Elmer," undated Snowden interview by Les Muscutt, Storyville,
    •    April/May 1968, pp.3-7
    •    June/July 1968 pp.4-7
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM pp.xi, 36
  • Vail I
  • Mark S. Tucker, Ellington, the Early Years, University of Illinois Press, 1991,pp.80-82 with photo
  • Don George, Sweet Man, The Real Duke Ellington, G.P. Putman's Sons, New York, 1981, pp.43-44
  • Milwaukee Journal-Sentinal, 1968-07-28 p.20 (re Smith's name)
  • Evening Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Penn.,
    • 1922-11-18 p.14
    • 1922-11-22 p.17
  • The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York, N.Y.
    • 1923-01-14 p.2C
  • The Sunday Times, New Brunswick, N.J.
    • 1923-02-04 p.6
  • The Daily Home News, New Brunswick, N.J.
    • 1923-02-09 p.28
    • 1923-02-10 p.3
  • The New York Clipper
    • Banner ad, 1923-02-23 p.24
  • Variety
    • 1924-03-19 p.5
  • The Sun and The Globe, New York, N.Y.,
    • 1924-02-28 p.8
  • The New York Age, New York, N.Y.
    • 1924-03-08 p.1
    • 1924-04-05 p.1
    • 1924-05-31 p.6
    • 1924-06-07 p.1
  • New York Evening Post, New York, N.Y.
    • 1924-06-06
  • Buffalo Courier, Buffalo, N.Y.,
    • 1924-06-07 p.2

  • References for Liza and her Shuffling Sextette:
    • Variety
      • Liza & Shuffling (6) - Proctor's 23rd St. (New York) weeks of March 5 & 12, 1923:
        • 1923-03-01 p.38
        • 1923-03-08 p.32
      • Liza & Shuffling 6 - Proctor's (Elizabeth, N.J.) week of March 19, 1923:
        • 1923-03-15 p.34
      • Liza & Shuffling 6 - Olympia, Lynn, Mass. week of May 7, 1923:
        • 1923-05-03 p.32
      • Liza & Shuffling 6 - Palace, Manchester, week of May 10, 1923:
        • 1923-05-10 p.30
        • 1923-05-02 p.12
        • 1923-05-04 p.19
      • Liza & Shuffling 6 - Proctor's (Schenectady, N.Y.) week of May 21, 1923
        • 1923-05-17 p.32
    • New York Clipper
      1923-03-14
      Liza and Her Shuffling Sextette were mentioned in a review of a Proctor's 23rd Street show
    • Evening Star, Washington D.C.
      1923-05 31 p.50
    • Washington Post, Washington D.C.
      • 1923-06-02 p.12
      • 1923-06-03 p.16
      • 1923-06-07 p.16
      • 1923-06-10 p.3
    • Fitchburg Sentinel, Fitchburg, Mass.
      1923-05-03 p.12
      Liza and Her Shuffling Sextette in "The Jazz That Am," Cumings, The House of Good Cheer
..
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added
2018-01-25
2018-02-22
2018-07-07

January 1923

1923 01 01
Monday
1923 01 31
Wednesday
..activities not documented......

February 1923

1923 02 01
Thursday
1923 02 27
Tuesday
..activities not documented...
..
1923 02 28
Wednesday
..activities not documented

On this date, the New York Clipper carried this brief announcement:

'SWEATMAN IN NEW ACT
Wilbur Sweatman , the ragtime and jazz clarionetist, is showing a new act, assisted by Flo Dade and his five syncopators. Tim O'Donnell, of the Casey agency , is headlining the bookings.'

and this ad:PHONOGRAPH ARTIST WILBUR SWEATMAN ORIGINATOR AND MUCH IMITATED RAGTIME AND JAZZ CLARIONETIST Assisted by FLO DADE, and his ACME OF SYNCOPATORS DUKE ELLINGTON, Piano  MACEO JEFFERSON, Banjo OTTO HARTWICK (sic), Saxophone RALPH ESCUDERO, Bass SONNY GREER, Drummer
S. Lasker:

'Wilbur Sweatman recalled that he and Duke Ellington never recorded together, which contradicts a claim by banjoist Mike Danzi ("American Musician in Germany, 1924-39," Schmitten, Germany, 1986) that he and Ellington played together on Sweatman's Gennett recording of "Battleship Kate," of which a rejected/lost version was made circa 1924-08-12 and a remake version on 1924-09-20. The pianist on the latter side (Gennett 5584-B) doesn't sound like Ellington to me.'

...
.djp

March 1923

1923 03 01
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 02
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 03
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 04
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 05
Monday
1923 03 11New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatre
132nd St. & 7th Ave.
Harlem
Midnight Frolic Friday
Matinee every day
Continous/Sunday from 2 to 11 (1 to 11 per Lasker)
Wilbur Sweatman Band
An ad in the Amsterdam News announced

WILBER C. SWEATMAN
ORIGINATOR AND HIS MOST IMITATED RAG-TIME AND JAZZ BAND
assisted by
FLO DADE AND HIS ACME OF SYNCOPATORS
Duke Ellington, Piano; Maceo Jefferson, banjo; Joan Anderson, trombone; Otta Hardwick, saxophone; Ralph Escudero, bass; Sonny Green, drums.

Other acts appearing:
  • Wells & Wells
  • Joyner & Foster
  • Walters & Farrell
  • Story Book Revue' featuring Buster Edwards
  • 'Husbands Three' A Merry Musical Comedy - 17 people
The band (Jefferson, Escudero, Ellington, Sweatman, Dade, Greer, Anderson and Hardwick) was photographed at the Lafayette this week. The photos are found in Record Research No. 128, 1974-06, and Tucker, Early Years, p.82.
  • Tucker, Early Years, pp.80-82
  • Vail I
  • Ad, New York Amsterdam News 1923-03-07 - see Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club,p.5, citing
    • Ad, New York Amsterdam News, 1923-03-07 p.5
    • Ulanov (ibid.), p.27
  • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, privately published, 2006, p.7, citing
..
.djp
2011
updated

2013-01-09
2014-03-28
1923 03 06
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatresee 1923 03 05...
..
Added
2011
1923 03 07
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatresee 1923 03 05...
..
Added
2011
1923 03 08
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatresee 1923 03 05...
..
Added
2011
1923 03 09
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatresee 1923 03 05...
..
Added
2011
1923 03 10
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatresee 1923 03 05...
..
Added
2011
Circa
1923 03 10
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Busoni's Balconades (or Balconnades) Ballroom
  • The Washingtonians (Greer, Ellington, and Hardwick but not Snowden or Whetsel) may have played this venue during the middle or last part of March, if they were not still working for Sweatman. Or Sweatman might have been involved too. Snowden was still in Washington.
  • Various sources report Greer said he and Duke went to New York the first time in 1921 and played Busoni's Balconnades (or Balconades) Ballroom opposite the Original Dixieland Band and Phil Napoleon's Memphis Five. This could not have happened until March 1923 at the earliest, and if they did play there, was it for one night, or longer? Was it just Sonny and Duke, or was it with Wilbur Sweatman too? Elmer Snowden was not involved, since he seems to have remained in Washington while Ellington and his buddies went to New York the first time. Did Toby Hardwick play with Sonny and Duke at Busoni's?
  • It is not at all certain our heroes played here. A late June announcement in The New York Clipper would seem to indicate the first time three orchestras played this club was in June and the paper described this as a novelty. These bands were the Original Memphis Five, the Original Dixieland Jazz Band and the Circle Quintette, all described as Dixieland combinations. Circle Quintette was not an Ellington group - when it broadcast on WEBJ in 1924 its personnel included Jerry Antonocci and Napoleon Anthony. The Sun announcement said it was from Balconades Ballroom and The New York Telegram and Evening Mail named these members.
  • While Greer and Ellington may have travelled to New York in 1921, it seems unlikely only a pianist and a drummer would be hired to play opposite a house band. It is possible Greer, Ellington, Hardwick and Snowden travelled to New York and played in the Balconades in 1921 when it was owned by Thomas Healey, who turned it over to Sixte Busoni in January 1922, but if they did, they did not play opposite the other two bands named by Greer. Given Busoni's prominent role described by Greer, it seems most likely that the job was in 1923 rather than 1921.
  • If Greer and Ellington played opposite the Original Dixieland Jazz Band and the Memphis Five at Busoni's Balconades Ballroom in March, it would have been with Sweatman and Hardwick, since they were still working for Wilbur in June.
  • Other factors indicating the 1921 date is incorrect:
    • Sixte Busoni appears to have taken over the Balconades or Balconnades [both spellings appear in print] Ballroom from building owner Tom Healy:
      • The Evening Telegram carried ads for Thomas Healy's Three Floors of Good Cheer at Broadway & 66th St. in February 1922. The Balconades Ballroom is named in the ads
      • In January 1922, Variety reported an announcement had been made of the opening of the Balconnades [sic] Ballroom at Healy's, without Tom Healy mentioned. It said dancing would be to the music of Castle's Society and Memphis Jazzband Orchestra, and "The Balconnades Ballroom seems to be in line with Tom Healy's previously announnced [sic] intention of disassociating himself from the restaurant business."
    • The Daily Star reported The Original Dixieland Jazzband was engaged for the new Balconades Ballroom in the Healy Building, which was to open that night, January 14, 1922
    • In March 1922, Variety reported The Roseland Amusement Corp. was denied an injunction against Sixte Busone, operator of the Balconnades Ballroom above Healy's to restrain him from employing Philip Napoleon and Milford Mole.
    • In May 1922 the Brooklyn Standard Union ran articles about Danceland on Coney Island which said it was operated by the same management as the Balconades Ballroom. They refer to continuous music provided by the Memphis Five and Busoni's Syncopators.
  • The New York Clipper, New York, N.Y.
    1923-06-20 p.28
  • The Sun, New York, N.Y.
    1924-12-20 p.44
  • The New York Telegram and Evening Mail, New York, N.Y.
    1924-11-18 p.13)
  • Variety
    • 1923-06-07 pp.23, 30
    • 1922-01-13 p.9
    • 1922-03-17 p.11
  • Evan Spring:
    "Duke Ellington chronology,"
    The Cambridge Companion to Duke Ellington, Cambridge University Press, 2015
  • A.H. Lawrence: Duke Ellington and His World, p.406
  • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p.83
  • Mark Tucker, Duke Ellington, The Early Years, p.80 and note 3, p.289, citing Tim Weiner:
    Keeping Time with Sonny Greer, Soho Weekly News 1979-06-15
  • Email, Steiner-Spring and/or Green et al, 2015-03-26, citing Weiner (ibid.)
  • Email correspondence Wondraschek-Palmquist Dec.2017 and Jan.2018
  • Ralph Wondraschek:
    The Memphis Five
    Part 1: March 1919 - June 1920:
    The Last Word In Jazz Art
    (Vintage Jazz Mart)
  • The Daily Star, Queens Borough, N.Y.
    1922-01-14 p.10
  • The Evening Telegram, New York, N.Y.:
    • 1921-02-01 (page no. illegible)
    • 1921-02-04 p.12
    • 1921-02-05 p.11
    • 1921-02-10 p.4
  • Brooklyn Standard Union, Brooklyn, N.Y.
    • 1922-05-21 p.13
    • 1922-05-28 p.19
  • New York Age, New York, N.Y.
    • 1921-01-22
    • 1921-08-21, p.3
  • The Washington Bee, Washington, D.C.
    1921-03-12
  • Washington Post, Washington, D.C.
    • 1921-06-04
    • 1921-06-21
..
.djpNew
added 2014-03-22
updated
2018-02-23
1923 03 11
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatresee 1923 03 05
  • Lasker, ibid.
  • Steiner, ibid.
..
..
Added
2011
updated 2014-03-28
2014-09-23
1923 03 12
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 13
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 14
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 15
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 16
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 17
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 18
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 19
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 20
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 21
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 22
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 23
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 24
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 25
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 26
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 27
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 28
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 29
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 30
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 03 31
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...

April 1923

1923 04 01
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 02
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 03
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 04
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 05
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 06
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 07
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 08
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 09
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 10
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 11
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 12
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 13
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 14
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 15
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 16
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 17
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 18
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 19
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 20
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 21
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 22
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 23
Monday
1923 04 28
Saturday
Philadelphia, Penn.Grand Theater(Unconfirmed)
Vaudeville
Berresford speculates that Ellington, Greer and Hardwick were still with Wilbur Sweatman, because the Chicago Defender said Sweatman with his assisting Syncopators appeared at the Grand for this week.
Mark Berresford: That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman p.136, citing Chicago Defender 1923-03-31..
.djpNew
added 2012-12-08
1923 04 24
Tuesday
.Philadelphia, Penn.Grand TheaterUnconfirmed - see 1923 04 23...
.djpadded 2012-12-08
1923 04 25
Wednesday
.Philadelphia, Penn.Grand TheaterUnconfirmed - see 1923 04 23...
.djpadded 2012-12-08
1923 04 26
Thursday
.Philadelphia, Penn.Grand TheaterUnconfirmed - see 1923 04 23...
.djpadded 2012-12-08
1923 04 27
Friday
.Philadelphia, Penn.Grand TheaterUnconfirmed - see 1923 04 23...
.djpadded 2012-12-08
1923 04 28
Saturday
.Philadelphia, Penn.Grand TheaterUnconfirmed - see 1923 04 23...
.djpadded 2012-12-08
1923 04 29
Sunday
Ellington's birthday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 04 30
Monday
...activities not documented...
...

May 1923

1923 05 01
Tuesday
1923 05 31
Thursday
..Activities this month are not documented - Ellington, Hardwick and Greer may have been back in Washington, working with Elmer Snowden...
...

June 1923

1923 06 01
Friday
...activities not documented...
..
1923 06 02
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 03
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 04
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 05
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 06
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 07
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 08
Friday
.Baltimore, Md.Wonderland Amusement Park
Cherry Hill Ave. [recte Rd.] west of Hanover St.
Elmer Snowden's Jazz Kings
  • Tucker, Early Years, p.86
  • Ads, Baltimore Afro-American
  • Park location per The Billboard
    • 1923-07-28 p.94
    • 1929-11-16 p.66
..
.Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.52011
updated
2013-05-25
2018-03-29
1923 06 09
Saturday
1923 06 30
Saturday
..activities not documented...
..
1923 06 10
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 11
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 12
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 13
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 14
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 15
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 16
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 17
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 18
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 19
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 20
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 21
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 22
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 23
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 24
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 25
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 26
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 27
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 28
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 29
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 06 30
Saturday
...activities not documented...
...
Circa
1923 06 00
.Atlantic City, N.J.Music BoxActivities not documented, however, Charters and Kundstadt say:

'Despite their lean weeks away from home they were still determined so they joined Snowden's band, The Washington Black Sox Orchestra, at the Music Box in late June 1923... '

Their book has a few errors concerning Ellington, so "late June" may not be reliable. "Late June" is also the date given by Tucker, p.87.
  • Samuel B.Charters and Leonard Kunstadt, Jazz; A History of the New York Scene, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962, p.212
  • Mark S. Tucker, Ellington, the Early Years, University of Illinois Press, 1991, ("Early Years") p.87
..
.djpNew
added
2018-09-02

July 1923

1923 07 00.New York, N.Y..Shortly before the Exclusive Club engagement, t, the the band is reported to have auditioned for the Everglades Club at 48th and Broadway. Frank Dutton, Birth of a Band, Storyille #91, Oct-Nov 1980, citing Stanley Dance, the World of Swing pp.50-51..
. djpNew
added 2014-03-26
1923 07 02
Monday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 03
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 04
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 05
Thursday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 06
Friday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 07
Saturday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 08
Sunday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 09
Monday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 10
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 11
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 12
Thursday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 13
Friday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 14
Saturday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 15
Sunday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 16
Monday
1923 07 21
Saturday.
New York, N.Y.Connie's InnEllington was hired to be the rehearsal pianist during the daytime for the Leonard Harper show that was to open July 21 at the new Connie's Inn. The dates he played for the rehearsals are not known; presumably it would have been most of this week. Tucker:

'At Connie's, while working with seasoned professional entertainers, Ellington began learning first-hand about the musical strucure of revues. '

  • Mark Berresford, That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman, p.139
  • Tucker, Early Years, p.92
..
.djp
2011
updated
2012-11-26
circa
1923 00 00
.
...LIFE EVENT
The Cambridge Companion says Duke's wife Edna moved to New York in 1923 where she worked at Connie's Inn as a showgirl. The author did not provide a source but it is not inconsistent with Mercer Ellington's comments, although Mercer's comments may indicate it was some time earlier:
'After a short spell with my father and mother, I was left with my grandfather and grandmother in Washington, while they went off to New York...'
Steven Lasker identifies the source as Austin Lawrence, p407:
"July 1923: Ellington hired as rehearsal pianist for a revue opening at Connie's Inn on the 21st; Ellington's wife, Edna, demands to come to New York and is soon hired at Connie's Inn as a showgirl.'
  • Cambridge Companion, p.xiv
  • M. Ellington, DEIP, p.16
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
..
.djpNew
added
2015-03-18
updated
2015-05-25
2017-04-26
1923 07 17
Tuesday
1923 07 21
Saturday
New York, N.Y.Connie's InnEllington probably worked during the day as the Connie's Inn rehearsal pianist - see 1923 07 16...
.djp
2012-11-26
1923 07 17
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 18
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Connie's InnEllington probably worked during the day as the Connie's Inn rehearsal pianist - see 1923 07 16...
.djp
2012-11-26
1923 07 18
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 19
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Connie's InnEllington probably worked during the day as the Connie's Inn rehearsal pianist - see 1923 07 16...
.djp
2012-11-26
1923 07 19
Thursday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 20
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Connie's InnEllington probably worked during the day as the Connie's Inn rehearsal pianist - see 1923 07 16...
.djp
2012-11-26
1923 07 20
Friday
.New York, N.Y..activities not documented...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
Circa
1923 07 21
Friday
1923 08 23
Thursday
New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive Club
198 W. 134th St
(Harlem)
(the club name is as it appeared on signage)
The exact dates of this residency are unknown.

If the band came to New York directly after the Baltimore engagement on June 8, and if Snowden's claim to have told the club owner that the Washingtonians had been in New York for five weeks is true, the Exclusive Club engagement may have started around July 21. It might have started before Ellington was hired at Connie's Inn, though, if Beresford is right:

'Harper needed a daytime rehearsal pianist ... and found the ideal candidate working at Harlem celebrity and club owner Barron Wilkin's nightclub, Club Barron–none other than Duke Ellington.'


While Snowden said the band stayed six months, it opened at the Hollywood at the end of August.
Club owner Barron Wilkins hired the Snowden band on Ada (Bricktop) Smith's recommendation. They replaced the house band that was paid out for 2 weeks, so they only received tips for those weeks. Tips were lucrative, but hours were long - from 11 pm to 10 or 11 am.
Ellington:

'Everybody seemed to like us at Barron's, and at that time there were no other organized bands in Harlem. We were only five, but we had arrangements on everything, and it was what we've now named conversation music, kind of soft and gutbucket. We were Toby, Whetsol, Sonny, Snowden and myself, and we let Snowden handle the business...
  There were lots of "Mr. Gunions'' who came into Barron's. A "Mr. Gunion'' is anybody with lots of money. We used to make thirty dollars a week, and the tips ran into twenty apiece per night. There were nine of us who had to split, the four entertainers and ourselves. We used to see fellows throwing twenty dollars in halves on the floor.'


Greer:

'It was a popular club. But the guys didn't really start hanging out there as a bunch until we came because he had never really heard anybody like us. So the word spread and they come down there. The place was so packed they couldn't accomodate all the musicians trying to come in. And a one-set rule that we had at the time, we were paid for entertaining so we couldn't let just anybody walk in there and play. Bricktop ... was the hostess there ... she got us the job ... and the business tripled overnight. So all the musicians, our friends, they'd come in. He never turned them away but as far as playing they come to listen...nobody that played like us. Six pieces sounded like 12, and we played so smooth, we were never loud...We went down there in July and stayed the whole summer."


Elmer Snowden:

'...we ran across the woman that we used to work with in Washington... called 'Bricktop'...and she was so surprised to see us in New York, and she said, 'What you doing here?' So I told her the story.
  'So mebbe I can get you a job', so I said, 'Well you'll have to get it quick, 'cause we going right back to Washington either tomorrow or the next day. We've sent back for some money, and as soon as the money get here we're going back to Washington.'
  So, sure enough, she went round to the place where she was working called Baron [sic] Wilkin's Inn ... and all the big shots of that time, the gangsters ... and movie stars used to go there. So she went to the man who owned the place, and he said, 'but I've got a band here, I don't need another band.'
  So she said 'Well these boys are friends of mine and they're here and they don't have no job and they NEED a job, and we've been working together for a long time.' So he said, 'What am I gonna do with them?' So he happened to think and said, 'Well, tell the leader of the band to come down and I'll talk to him.' So I went down there and I talked to him. So he said, 'The only thing I can see, if you'll work two weeks for nothing....' and I said, 'But we've been here five weeks already ....and we'd still have nothing.' He said, 'I know what you're thinking, but I have to pay my band two weeks salary to let them go so you can come in, but I'll tell you what I'll do. I'll give you $40.00 – I'll GUARANTEE you $40.00 .... if you don't make $40.00 in tips, then you come to me and I'll make it up for those two weeks.' Well the first night we went in the place we took $50.00 apiece....the first NIGHT. We used to start at eleven at night and come off at ten or eleven the next morning.... the kids were just coming home for their lunch and we were just coming out of the place but we were loaded....we got some money. So at the end of the first week he called me upstairs to his office and he said, 'Well son, how did you do this week, are you satisfied? Did you make your #40.00?'
  I said, 'Yes, we covered, we made a little more than that.' We came out of there with more than $150.00 apiece. So we stayed there just about six months and then we got this job on Broadway...'

  • M. Tucker, Early Years, 1991 pp.88, 92
  • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, 2006, p.11, quoting Sonny Greer's January 1979 interview by Stanley Crouch for the Smithsonian Jazz Oral History Project.
  • "Discovering Elmer,"Storyville,
    • April/May 1968, pp.3-7
    • June/July 1968 pp.4-7
    • Mark Berresford, That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman, p.139
    • Photo, exterior of Barron's Exclusive Club, Jazz A History of the New York Scene, Samuel B. Charters & Leonard Kunstadt, Doubleday & Company, 1962 (https://archive.org
..
.djp
2011
updated
2012-11-26
2014-06-16
2018-07-07
2018-09-02
1923 07 21
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Connie's InnEllington probably worked during the day as the Connie's Inn rehearsal pianist if rehearsals were needed on opening day - see 1923 07 16...
.djp
2012-11-26
1923 07 21
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Connie's InnPeripheral Event
Connie's Inn, at or below the Lafayette Theatre, opened on this date. The first revue was a Leonard Harper production, with Wilbur Sweatman's Jazz Kings.
The New York Age waged a campaign protesting the opening of Connie's Inn and other booze joints in Harlem. In its Nov. 3 edition, it said the cabaret was in the basement of the Lafayette Hall building, not in the Lafayette Theatre building.
  • The Sun and Globe, New York, N.Y.
    1923-08-25
  • The New York Age, New York, N.Y.,
    • 1923-08-04 p.1
    • 1923-08-11 p.1
    • 1923-08-18 pp.1,2
    • 1923-09-29 p.2
    • 1923-10-06 p.2
    • et subs.
..
.djpNew
added
2018-01-22
updated
2018-03-30
1923 07 22
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 23
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 24
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 25
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 26
Thursday
.Manhattan
New York, N.Y.
Victor Talking Machine Co. studio
28 W.44th St.
Victor trial recording session
Snowden's Novelty Orchestra
Whetsel, Hardwick, Ellington, Snowden and Greer

Title recorded:
Home

Steven Lasker:

' The files show no matrix number for this recording, and offer no evidence that it was ever processed into a metal part or test-pressed from one. '

Lasker, in DEMS 96/2-7:

'The Victor Talking Machine Company's "Recording Book" for 1923 ... documents a session by "Snowden's Nov. Orch." ... 26 July 1923, and produced one "trial" title: "HOME." While the ledger is silent as to personnel present, bandleader Elmer Snowden recalled them as the original Washingtonians: Whetsel, Hardwick, Ellington, Snowden and Greer. (As to the exact number of men, Snowden's own retellings disagreed; "five" to Stanley Dance (The World of Swing) but "six" to Les Muscutt (Storyville 16, April-May 1968)...

As for the 26 July 23 "HOME," the ledger entry bears neither "Serial No." nor "mark" data in the appropriate columns (except for a "B" to indicate a 10" master), so the piece was likely rejected on the spot and the wax master destroyed without a metal part or test pressing having resulted. No test pressing is known to me and sources at BMG inform me of the absence of unprocessed waxes, unnumbered metal parts or shellac tests in their vaults.'

In MIMM, Ellington says Maceo Pinkard was the first to take me to a studio ... so it is possible he was present during this session.
  • Timner IV, p.1
  • Dick M. Bakker, Duke Ellington on Microgroove Vol One 1923-1936
  • Duke Ellington, MIMM, p.102
  • S.Lasker, book to The Duke Ellington Centennial Edition, RCA Victor CD box set 09026-63386-2, p.20
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist
    • 2017-02-28
    • 2018-09-02
.DEMS
.S.Hoefsmit (06,1-29); djp; Lasker Jan 2017 Added
2011
updated 2012-02-09
2014-12-30
2017-01-25
2017-03-01
2018-09-02
1923 07 26
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 27
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 28
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 29
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 30
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 07 31
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26

August 1923

1923 08 01
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 02
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 03
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 04
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 05
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 06
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 07
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 08
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 09
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 10
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 11
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 12
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 13
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 14
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 15
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 16
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 17
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 18
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 19
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 20
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 21
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 22
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - unconfirmed - see 1923 07 21...
..
2011; updated 2012-11-26
1923 08 23
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Barron's Exclusive ClubNightclub residency - see 1923 07 01

August 23 is the end of the Exclusive Club engagement according to Steiner.
Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.5..
..
2011
updated
2013-01-10
1923 08 24
Friday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 08 25
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Premier Grand Piano Co.
510 W. 23 St.
Ellington and his orchestra made its first known radio appearance on WDT at midday. Who was in this orchestra isn't known.

Ken Steiner describes WDT as a short-lived (1921-23) radio station owned by the Ship Owners' Radio Service, broadcasting one or two hours a day from the Premier Grand Piano Company and managed by actress, singer and radio personality Vaughan De Leath, the "Original Radio Girl."
  • The show was announced by Floyd G. Snelson, Jr. in his "New York Weekly News Letter" column in The Pittsburgh Courier:

    'Negro Radio Concert
      Saturday, August 25, at Noon, Station W.D.T., New York City. Under the direction of Roland C. Irving and Floyd G. Enelson[sic], Jr.
    Program
       Trixie Smith, Blues soloist. Thomas Walker [sic], Pianist of Q.R.S. Records [sic]
       Josie Miles, Blues artist, with Roland Irving at the piano.
       Rosa Henderson, Blues artist, with Fletcher Henderson at the piano.
       Bruce [sic] Ellington and Serenaders Orchestra.
       Lena Wilson, popular singer with Porter Grainger at the piano.
       Roland Irving and his unique piano arrangements.
       The above program will furnish millions of radio fans their noon-hour entertainment and will be one of the best all-star programs every produced by race people. The station W.D.T. is one of the most prominently known broadcasting depots in the East and is under the direction of Mlle. Vaughan De Leath. She is the first director to introduce an entire Negro program, and takes a great pride in boasting of such entertainment for which she receives much commendation.'

  • Radio schedules (emphasis added):
    • The Brooklyn Daily Eagle:

      'Tomorrow's Early Program
      W D T (Manhattan, 405)

        12:00 m.–Duke Ellington and Orchestra: "Bebe,""Susan" and "Bananas."
        12:10 p.m.–Trixie Smith: "Man, Man, Don't Do That to Me," "Gulf Coast Blues."
        12:20 p.m.–Thomas Waller, pianist: "Where the Sacramento River Flows," "If Winter Comes," "Pickles."
        12:30 p.m.–Duge [sic] Ellington and Orchestra: "Where the Sacramento River Flows," "If Winter Comes," "Pickles."
        12:35 p.m.–Joe De Lisle, singer, and Roland Irving, pianist: "Don't Let Me Find You Here When I Get Back."
        12:40 p.m.–Rosa Henderson, singer: "Stop Messin' with My Man," "Cotton Belt Blues."
        12:45 p.m.–Lena Wilson: "Laughing, Crying Blues, "Taint Nobody's Business."
        12:50 p.m.–Duke Ellington and Orchestra: "My Own," "Mose," "Papa, Watch Your Step."'

    • The Evening World:

      'WDT, NEW YORK–405.
      12:00 m.—Duke Ellington, songs: "Bebe,""Susan," "Bananas."
         12.10 P.M.—Trixie Smith, songs: "Man, Man, Don't Do That to Me," "Gulf Coast Blues."
      12.20—Thomas Waller, pianist; "Farewell Blues," "Molasses."
      12.30—Duke Ellington, songs: "Where the Sacramento River Flows," "If Winter Comes," "Pickles."
      12.35—Joe De Lisle, song: "Don't Let Me Find You Here When I Get Back."
      12.40 Rosa Henderson, songs: "Stop Messin' with My Man," "Cotton Belt Blues."
      12.45— Lena Wilson, songs: "Laughing, Crying Blues," "Tain't Nobody's Business,"
      12.50 P.M. Duke Ellington, songs: "My Own," "Mose," "Papa, Watch Your Step."

    • Radio Digest Ilustrated:

      '12:00-1:00 pm (EDT)Orchestra selections; "Man, Man, Don't Do That to Me." "Gulf Coast Blues," Trixie Smith; "Farewell Blues," "Molasses," Thomas Waller, pianist; "Where the Sacramento River Flows," "If Winter Comes," "Pickles," Duke Ellington, Vocalion Record artist and orchestra; "Don't Let Me Find You Here When I Get Back," Joe DeLisle, singer; Roland Irving, pianist; "Stop Messin' with My Man," "Cotton Belt Blues," Rosa Henderson, singer; Fletcher Henderson, pianist; "Laughing Crying Blues," "Taint Nobody's Business," Lena Wilson, Victor artist; Porter Grainger, pianist; "My Own," "Mose," "Papa, Watch Your Step," Duke Ellington and orchestra'

  • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, pp.11-12, quoting Floyd G. Snelson, Jr., "New York Weekly News Letter,"The Pittsburgh Courier, Pittsburgh, Penn., 1923-08-18 p.10
  • The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York, N.Y., 1923-08-24 p.6A
  • Ken Steiner, Mad Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.5, with radio log from The Evening World, New York, N.Y.
    1923-08-25
  • Radio Digest Illustrated, 1923-08-25,p.9
..
.djp2011
updated
2013-01-09
2013-08-31
2017-10-17
2017-10-22
1923 08 25
...activities not documented...
...
1923 08 26
Sunday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 08 27
Monday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 08 28
Tuesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 08 29
Wednesday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 08 30
Thursday
...activities not documented...
...
1923 08 31
Friday
circa
1926
New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret
a.k.a
  • Hollywood Café
  • New Hollywood Restaurant
  • Hollywood Restaurant
  • The Hollywood
  • New Hollywood
Basement, 203 West 49th St.
(Times Square)
This webpage uses "Hollywood Cabaret," the operating name shown in 1924 in an affidavit sworn by a U.S.Treasury Agent.
This appears to be a "soft opening," more or less a dry run before the announced opening on Sept. 1 (see 1923 09 01 below)

CREOLE REVUE OPENS AT NEW HOLLYWOOD
New Show Promises to Last Through Winter at Prominent Broadway Restaurant
A new Autumn revue was presented at the New Hollywood Restaurant, 208 West Forty-ninth street, entitled the "Creole Revue." It has come directly from the Empire Theatre in London and promises to last well after the snow flies.
  Some colored girls furnished liveliness by their songs and dances and did justice to the production of Leonard Harper, who staged the review. Mr. Harper again demonstrated his skill in managing musical miniature shows in the "Creole Revue."
  The cast boasts of Johnny Vigal, Brooks & White, Cassie Ward and many others not unknown to the frequenters of cabarets. The music was written especially for the production by Elmer Snowden, who led the Washington jazz band at the opening performance Friday night.
  The Hollywood Restaurant, one of the most prominent on Broadway, is under the management of Leo Bernstein, who is assisted by his partners, Frank Jerrie and George Hammond. The trio has gone to considerable expense to make the show a success.'
(emphasis added)
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1924-09-02 p.5
..
.djpNew
added
2018-01-08

September 1923

1923 09 00 .New York, N.Y.."In September 1923, The Billboard reported (Maceo Pinkard) had placed the (The Washingtonians) with the Victor record company..."
M. Tucker, Early Years, 1991 p.104..
..New
added 2012-01-09
Circa
1923 09 00
...PERSONNEL CHANGE
Ellington:

"Whetsol [sic] left us and went back to Howard University to study medicine. Bubber Miley was still young then, but we had him join. Our band changed its character when Bubber came in. He used to growl all night long, playing gut-bucket on his horn. That was when we decided to forget all about the sweet music."

Hardwick:

"...Whetsel went back to Howard University and we needed a good man. We wanted Miley...He was playing at a little place uptown and was happy there, so he stalled us off, thinking that if and when Whetsel came back, we'd let him go. One night after we finished work, we went up to Harlem, got Bubber stiff, and when he came to he was in a tuxedo growling at the Hollywood..."

New York Evening Telegram:

"Vincent Lopez was a recent visitor to the Hollywood and was unstinting in his praise of the cornetist of Elmer Snowden's Washington Black Dot Orchestra, 'Bub' Miley. Mr. Lopez said he is one of the best he has ever heard. 'And we opine that Mr. Lopez is some judge,' Snowden remarked with considerable pride in his voice."


New Desor has Bubber Miley and Charlie Irvis joining the band in 1924, based on band recordings, the first of which was in 1924.

Since Howard University's academic year probably began in September, it seems likely Whetsel left the band that month, with Bubber joining shortly thereafter.
Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, privately published, 2006, quoting
  • Duke Ellington, Jazz as I Have Seen It, Swing Magazine, 1940-06
  • Inez Cavanaugh / Otto Hardwick interview, Metronome, 1944-11-00, p.17
  • Steiner, private email 2014-03-29, quoting News of New York's Popular Hotels and Smart Restaurants, New York Evening Telegram, 1923-10-27
..
.djpNew
added 2014-03-28
circa 1923 09 00
.New York, N.Y..Quote from Ellington during his 1953 01 26 WLAW Boston interview with Nat Hentoff.

'We had this six-piece band. I used to go kind of everyday to one of the big movie houses on Broadway where they had symphony orchestras then and listen to the symphony orchestras play this beautiful lush music and then go back down to the cellar to my own six pieces and try to make 'em sound like that. (Laughs.)'

Interview extract, courtesy S. Lasker 2016-04-26.
.djpNew
added
2016-04-26
1923 09 01
Saturday
1923 11 07
Friday
New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretOpening night for the Hollywood and premiere of Leonard Harper's "Cleo Revue;"

"Three shows nightly at 9 PM, 11:30 PM and 1:30 AM staged and produced by Mr. Joe Ward. The Washingtonian Black Dot Orchestra, Elmer Snowden, Leader."

"Elmer Snowden's Washingtonian Black Dot orchestra will furnish music during dinner and supper, as well as for dancing."

Ellington recalled WHN radio broadcast their music every night after 2 a.m.

Sonny Greer:

"...We had six chorus girls in the show...The floorshow also included Johnny Hudgins...Joe Smith, the trumpet player, worked with him, and Joe did the talking on trumpet, using his hand as a mute. The M.C. was Bert Lewis and in between the shows he would come out and do an act with Fats Waller as his accompanist.
 We went to work at eleven o'clock at night and nobody knew when closing hour was. We usually didn't get through till seven or eight in the morning, but it was beautiful...
 The club held only about 130 people, but after all the other clubs closed the musicians would come to ours, and often you would see forty or fifty name musicians in there at a time...
 Because of the small stand, we couldn't use a bass player and we couldn't expand the band..."

Abel Green:

"This colored band is plenty torrid and includes a trumpet player who never need doff his chapeau to any cornetist in the business. He exacts the eeriest sort of modulation and 'singing' notes heard...The band is the sole feature up to midnight, when Harpers's Dixie Revue goes on, reappearing again at 2 a.m.
 ...They also broadcast every Wednesday at 3:45 from WHN radio station."

Willie "The Lion" Smith:

"...I'd ...catch the first show at the Kentucky Club...the bandstand was up under the sidewalk in a corner. The bandsmen had to walk up three stone steps to get on the stand. Their dressing rooms were like 'the Black Hole of Calcutta.' ...The stand ...only held six men and Duke had to play piano and direct from the dance floor. If you worked on the deck long enough, you wound up with hunched shoulders for good because the stand was about five-and-a-half feet from the glass grill up in the sidewalk."


Elmer Snowden, interviewed by Les Muscutt:

'...It was a place called the Hollywood Club...I always took my banjo home every night, but I was playing saxophone then...I had three saxes, a Baritone, a C Melody and a C Soprano...and a guitar, and my banjo...


Ken Steiner's early and exhaustive research into Ellington's time at the Hollywood and its successor, Club Kentucky, is presented in his paper Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, Duke Ellington and the Washingtonians, 1923-27, delivered at the 2008 International Duke Ellington Study Group conference in London.

Since Wild Throng is not in general circulation, here is a list of the various sources he cited that specifically relate to Ellington, the Washington Black Dot Orchestra, Elmer Snowden, the Washingtonians, and The Hollywood from September 1923 and February 1925:
  • Steven Lasker A Cotton Club Miscellany
  • The Tattler (New York)
  • Variety, "Leading Orchestras," 1926 (fall)
  • Liner notes, Columbia Records album C3L-39, 1996, pp.6-7
  • Ulanov (ibid.) p.27
  • Baltimore Afro-American, 1923-05-25, p.7
  • The Billboard, 1923-09-23, p.55
  • New York Clipper
    "Band and Orchestra Reviews,"1923-11-23
    • "Cabaret Shows in Dance Halls,"
      • 1923-12-14, p.24
      • 1924-01-04, p.24
      • 1924-02-22, ad, p.35
  • New York Sun, WHN radio schedule, 1923-09-27
  • Evening Telegram, ads
    • 1923-10-12 - 1923-11-07
    • 1923-09-08 to 1923-10-07
  • Evening Telegram, "News,"
    • 1923-09-29, p.5
    • 1923-10-27, p.4
    • 1923-11-03, p.4
    • 1923-11-10, p.14
    • 1923-11-17, p.10
    • 1923-12-01, p.9
  • Evening Telegram
    • 1923-09-01, p.8
    • 1923-09-08,p.10
    • 1923-10-13, p.4
  • International Musician, 1924-06-00
  • Morning Telegraph, "Hotels, Restaurants, Cabarets,"
    • 1923-09-02
    • 1923-09-09
    • 1923-09-23
    • 1923-09-23
    • 1923-10-14
    • 1923-10-23
    • 1923-10-28
    • 1923-11-04
    • 1923-11-11
    • 1923-11-18
    • 1923-12-02
    • 1923-12-16
    • 1923-12-30
    • 1924-01-01
    • 1924-01-13
    • 1924-02-03
    • 1924-02-17
    • 1924-03-02
    • 1924-03-09
  • Morning Telegraph 1924-04-13
  • Morning Telegraph, weekly ads
    • 1923-09-09 to 1923-10-07
    • 1923-10-14 to 1923-11-04
    • 1923-11-11 to 1924-01-13
  • New York Telegram and Evening Mail
    • 1924-02-09, p.5
    • 1924-03-08, p.14
  • New York Amsterdam News, 1923-03-07, p.7
  • New York Times "Fire Record" 1924-04-05
  • Pittsburgh Courier (PC), 1923-08-18 p.10
  • Swing, "Jazz as I Have Seen It, Part IV," 1940-06, p.21
  • The Evening World, New York, "Radio," 1923-08-25
  • Ad and plug, The Evening Telegram, 1923-09-01, p.8
  • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, pp.16 - 18, quoting
    • Abel Green in New York Clipper 1923-11-23 p.24
    • Sonny Greer, 'In Those Days' as told to Stanley Dance, Columbia album C3L39 notes
    • Willie the Lion Smith with George Hoefer, Music on My Mind, The Memoirs Of An American Pianist, p.173
  • Ken Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, Duke Ellington and the Washingtonians, 1923-27, privately published, 2008
  • "Discovering Elmer,"Storyville,
    • April/May 1968, pp.3-7
    • June/July 1968 pp.4-7
.DEMS
Vail I.2011
updated
2013-01-14
2014-03-29
2018-07-07
1923 09 02
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 03
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 04
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 05
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 06
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 07
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 08
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 09
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-09-09 p.8
..
..2011
updated
2012-11-26
2018-01-07
1923 09 10
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 11
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 12
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 13
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 14
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 15
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 16
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-09-16 p.8
..
..2011
updated
2012-11-26
2018-01-07
1923 09 17
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 18
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 19
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.(Unconfirmed)

probably from Loew's State Theatre, 1540 Broadway
In August 1923 WHN began broadcasting bands, and about a month later, The Clipper mentioned the names of some of them, including "the Washingtonians, a colored band from Hollywood café."

Tucker says the band played weekly, on Wednesday afternoons. Ellington said WHN broadcast the band every night after two a.m.
Clipper, 1923-09-14:

'CABARETS BID FOR PLUG VIA RADIO MUSIC
Sending Bands Down to Perform Regularly &Ndash; WHN Lists Many
The Broadway cabarets and dance places are making a bid for radio pupularity by sending their orchestras to play at regular periods. The Lowe building WHN station, because of its easy accessibility, is the most popular.

The following are a few of the orchestras lined up for this month: Strand Roof Band; Califormia Ramblers (every Wednesday afternoon); Clover Gardens Band every Wednesday evening; the Washingtonians, a colored band from Hollywood cafe, Harlem; Le Roy Smith's Orchestra; Metamora Band; Jack Small Orchestra from St. Nicholas Rink; and Joseph Jordan's Orchestra from Loew's State.'

  • Tucker, Early Years, pp. 106, 294
  • Ellington, Jazz as I Have Seen It, Part IV, Swing, 1940-06, p.21, quoted by S. Lasker in The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.13
  • Clipper, New York, 1923-09-14 p.21
..
.. Added
2011
updated
2012-08-09
2014-06-16
2018-07-28
1923 09 19
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 20
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 21
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 22
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 23
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 24
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 25
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 26
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 27
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Probably from Loew's State Theatre, 1540 BroadwayWHN broadcast scheduled:

'4:15-5:00 p.m. Elmer Snowden's "Washingtonians" Orchestra'

Radio schedule, Plainfield Courier-News, Plainfield, N.J. 1927-09-27 p.8..
.djpAdded
2011
updated
2017-06-10
1923 09 27
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 28
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 29
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 09 30
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-09-30 p.8
..
..2011
updated
2012-11-26
2018-01-07

October 1923

1923 10 01
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 02
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 03
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 04
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 05
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 06
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 07
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret(Unconfirmed)

Night club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-10-07 p.8
..
..2011
updated
2012-11-26
2018-01-07
1923 10 08
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret(Unconfirmed)

Night club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01
...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 09
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret(Unconfirmed)

Night club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01
...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 10
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret(Unconfirmed)

Night club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01
...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 11
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret(Unconfirmed)

Night club residency with "Cleo Revue" - see 1923 09 01
...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 12
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency and opening night of "Creole Revue" - two shows nightly. The opening was a week later than planned....
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 13
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 14
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12

Morning Telegraph:

'With the world's series going in full blast just now thousands of people are in New York from all over the country and this has gladdened the hearts of the hotel, restaurant and cabaret men, who are all doing a thriving business.
  The visitors have been going to see everything in town. The theatres at night are playing to capacity houses, the cabarets and dance places getting their share and everybody happy and enjoying themselves; even the bootleggers are generous, taking many of their out of town friends around showing them the sights and entertaining them...
Revue at the Hollywood.
  Another of the prominent Broadway cabaret places that hundreds of visitors have been going to all this week is the Hollywood, at Broadway and West Forty-ninth street. Leonard Harper's revue, the creole offering which he is presenting twice nightly, seems to have taken Broadway by storm.
  Then there is another big feature at the Hollywood. It is the Washingtonian black dot orchestra under the direction of Elmer Snowden. Then there is the delightful hostess, Miss Hazel Clark, whom everybody admires. Miss Clark, who speaks several languages, can hold conversation with French, German, Italian, Spanish, Gaelic, English and Hebrew, something that no other hostess in the cabarets of New York can boast of.
  Leo Bernstine [sic], George Hammond and Frank Jerrie, the owners of the Hollywood, always have many surprises for their patrons every night and when one drops in there they are always sure to see something new in a way of a new artist or a new song number at every performance. For good food and delightful music and dancing the Hollywood is hard to beat and that is why they are drawing capacity crowds every night in the week.'

The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-10-14 p.8
..
.djp2011
updated
2012-11-26
2018-01-07
2018-01-14
1923 10 15
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 16
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 17
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 18
Thursday
.New York, N.Y..Victor recording session
Snowden's Novelty Orchestra
Miley or Whetsel, John Anderson, Roland Smith, Hardwick, Ellington, Snowden, Greer

Titles recorded:
  • Home
  • M.T. Pocket Blues

Some discographies say Elmer Snowden's Novelty Orchestra recorded for Victor in this session. Bakker shows the recordings were unissued, and Steven Lasker and DEMS take the position it never occurred. Lasker's research of Victor's files showed no entry for it:

'The April 1963 issue of Jazz Journal included an Elmer Snowden discography, compiled by Bertrand Demeusy with Snowden's assistance. It lists a single session by Snowden's Novelty Orchestra, with two titles: "HOME" and "M.T. POCKET BLUES." A note explains: "Elmer Snowden says the record was made October 18, 1923. Brian Rust in his Jazz Records indicates New York, July 26, 1923."

18 Oct 23 ... has since 1963 been listed by discographers as constituting a second, additional, session by the band. However, a review I conducted in 1987/88 of Victor's ledger books for 1923 and 1924 disclosed no session by "Snowden," or "Ellington," or "the Washingtonians" other than the Snowden session of 26 July 23. No recording of a piece called "HOME" was made at Victor on any date in 1923/4 other than that, and "M.T. POCKET BLUES" went unrecorded by anyone there. Thus, according to Victor's files and contrary to Snowden, 18 Oct 23 is a date without consequence in the recorded careers of Snowden, Ellington and company. '

Timner IV, p.1.DEMS
Timner corrections S.Hoefsmit (06,1-29)2011
updated
2014-01-19
1923 10 19
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 20
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 21
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.New Star Casino,
East 107th St. & 3rd Ave.
Harlem
Song Writers' Concert and Dance
.
..
..Added
2011
1923 10 22
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-10-21 p.8.
..
..2011
updated
2012-11-26
1923 10 23
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 24
Wednesday
...Fred Fisher Company registered the copyright of Blind Man's Buff. Mark Tucker writes "This is the first tangible evidence of Ellington's work with Jo Trent."Tucker, Early Years, p.103
..
.djpNew
added 2012-01-07
updated 2014-08-17
2015-02-28
1923 10 24
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 25
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 26
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 27
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 28
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 29
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 30
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 10 31
Wednesday
Hallowe'en
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club engagement- see 1923 10 12

Three showings of a special show were announced, featuring Celtic airs played by the orchestra and "a number of real old Irish songs" sung by "colored artists."
Steiner, Wild Throng, citing Morning Telegraph, "Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets," 1923-10-28...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26

November 1923

1923 11 01
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 11 02
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 11 03
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12

"Four stars of colored shows" had been engaged for the new review that was postoned until Thursday, and were rehearsing for opening night.
The Evening Telegram, "News," 1923-11-03, p.4..
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 11 04
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-11-04 p.8
..
..2011
updated
2012-11-26
2018-01-07
1923 11 05
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 11 06
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 11 07
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 10 12...
..2011
updated 2012-11-26
1923 11 08
Thursday
1924 01 20New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency -see 1923 09 01

This was the scheduled opening night of "The Dixie Girl Revue" but the Evening Telegram reported the opening was postponed until the next Thursday night. It said Leo Berstein, manager and one of the owners of the Hollywood, had been off sick for two weeks and with his partners, George Hammond and Frank [illegible] is putting all of his energies into making the new all-[illegible] show one of the best ever seen. Four stars of colored shows have already been engaged and are rehearsing for opening night.

On the other hand, on November 11, The Morning Telegraph reported the review reported:

'Hollywood Revue a Hit.
  Last Thursday night the Hollywood cabaret and reswtaurant at Broadway and Forty-ninth street introduced its new Winter revue to a capacity crowd of dinters. The new offering is called the "Dixie Girl Revue. The music was written by Duke Ellington and the revue staged and produced undder the general diretion of Lornard [sic] Harper.
  Many of the song numbers were big hits and the diners joined in some of the choruses. In the new offering as principals are Howard & Brown, two very clever comedians; Fred Weaver, who kept the crowd in roars of laughter with his specialty. Then there were Johnny Hudgins and Adah (Brick Top) Smith, including a chorus of beautiful Creoles.
  In the chorus were Marie Dore, Lena Dukes, May Fortune, Rita Walker, "Billy" Kelly, Ruth Marshall and Evelyn Shephard. The costumes were furnished by the Vanity Costume Company.
  There were many splendid electrical effects and one of the big hits of the revue was Sonny Greer, a trick drummer, who received rounds of applause for his work.
  Bernstine [recte Bernstein], Hammond & Sherry [recte Jerry], the owners of the Hollywood, are to be congratulated in giving Broadway such an exellent colored revue. They spared no expense.'


The band advertised was The Washingtonian Real Jazz Orchestra Elmer Snowden, Leader. The Evening Telegram Nov. 8 ad said the revue was twice nightly, staged and produced by Leonard Harper, featuring special music by Duke Ellington, and the name of the and was Washingtonians Real Jazz Orchestra. The right edge of the ad in the archive is cut off, but it appears to say dancing was to be from 9 p.m. until closing. The plug in that edition said Johnny Hudgins, colored comedian, will be an added attraction "next week" as will Howard and Brown, singers and dancers.
  • Evening Telegram, New York, N.Y.
    1923-11-08 p.15 and p.(?)
  • Ads, Evening Telegram,
    1923-11-10 to 1923-12-07
  • Evening Telegram, New York, N.Y. "News,"
    1923-11-10, p.14
  • The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
    • 1923-11-08 pp.6, 14
    • "Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets,"
      1923-11-11 p.8
  • Weekly ads, Morning Telegraph
    1923-11-11 to 1924-01-13
..
..Added
2011
updated
2017-10-17
2017-10-18
2018-01-12
1923 11 09
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08(Note the revue may not have opened until Nov. 15 - see 1923 11 08 above)...
..2011
1923 11 10
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08(Note the revue may not have opened until Nov. 15 - see 1923 11 08 above)

The New York Age Theatrical Jottings:

'Howard and Brown is heading the Dixie Girl Revue at the Hollywood Restaruant, 49th street, with Fred Weaver, Adah (Bricktop) Smith, Mohnny Hudgins and a Beauty Chorus.'

The New York Age, New York, N.Y.
1923-11-10 p.6.
..
..2011
updated
2018-01-12
1923 11 11
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

The Morning Telegraph ad announced the Dixie Girl Revue, two shows nightly at 11:30 p.m. and 1:30 a.m., and the band was THE WASHINGTONIAN BLACK DOT ORCHESTRA, ELMER SNOWDEN, LEADER.
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
  • 1923-11-08 pp.6, 14
  • "Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets,"
    1923-11-11 p.8
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-12
1923 11 12
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08(Note the revue may not have opened until Nov. 15 - see 1923 11 08 above)...
..2011
1923 11 13
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08(Note the revue may not have opened until Nov. 15 - see 1923 11 08 above)...
..2011
1923 11 14
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08(Note the revue may not have opened until Nov. 15 - see 1923 11 08 above)...
..2011
1923 11 15
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with the postponed "Dixie Girl Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08The Evening Telegram, New York, N.Y.
1923-11-08
..
.djp2011
updated
2017-10-17
1923 11 16
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 17
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Dixie Girl" - see 1923 11 08
The Evening Telegram reported Snowden had added "Otto and Smith, The Saxophone Twins" to the Washington Black Dot Orchestra.
Evening Telegram, "News," 1923-11-17..
.djp2011
updated
2017-07-10
1923 11 18
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08The Morning Telegraph ad announced the Dixie Girl Revue, two shows nightly at 11:30 p.m. and 1:30 a.m., and the band was THE WASHINGTONIAN BLACK DOT ORCHESTRA, ELMER SNOWDEN, LEADER.The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-11-18 p.8
..
..2011
updated
2018-01-12
1923 11 19
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 20
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 21
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.WHN studio or remote?Afternoon broadcast

Ken Steiner

'Abel Green mentioned that the Washingtonians "broadcast every Wednesday at 3:45 from WHN.' I had found Wednesday afternoon broadcasts on Sept. 20 and Sept. 27, but nothing after that. I found this in the Jersey Journal. Maybe the afternoon broadcasts resumed on Nov. 21? It also says "from the Hollywood." Perhaps this was actually from the Hollywood, when they first got a wire? I believe the September broadcasts were from the WHN studio at the nearby Loew's State.
I'm rather amazed to see the band members listed...'

Radio log:

'4:15 p.m. - "The Washingtonians" from the Hollywood. Elmer Snoden [sic], leader; Duke Ellington, John Anderson, Sonny Grear [sic], Rollin [sic] Smith, Bob Marley and Otto Harwick[sic].'

Radio log, Jersey Journal, Jersey City, N.J., courtesy K. Steiner...djpNew
added
2018-01-12
1923 11 21
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 22
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 23
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Dixie Girl" - see 1923 10 12 and 1923 11 08

Note the revue appears to be only be playing twice a night by this time.
Abel Green, in Clipper:

'THE WASHINGTONIANS (7)
Hollywood, New York
This colored band is plenty torrid and includes a trumpet player who never need doff his chapeau to any cornetist in the business. He exacts the eeriest sort of modulations and "singing" notes heard.
  The Hollywood, a comparatively new Times Square basement cabaret (it opened Sept. 1 last), is on West 49th street. The band is the sole feature up to midnight, when Harper's Dixie Revue goes on, repeating again at 2 a.m.
  The boys can seemingly satisfy without exerting themselves, but for the benefit of the Clipper reviewer they brought out a variety of instruments upon which each demonstrated his versatility. And how!
  Elmer Snowden is the leader and banjoist, also doubling with soprano sax. "Bub" Miley is the "hot" cornetist, doubling with the melophone. John Anderson doubles trombone and trumpet; Sonny Greer specializes in the vocal interludes when not at the traps; Otto Hardwick, saxo and violin; Roland Smith, sal and bassoon, and Duke Ellington, piano-arranger.
  The boys look neat in dress suits and labor hard but not in vain at their music. They disclose painstaking rehearsal, playing without music. They are well known in several southern places and were at the Music Box, Atlantic City, the past summer. They also broadcast every Wednesday at 3:45 from WHN (Loew State building) radio station.

Abel.'


Advertisements in The Evening Telegram, however, until Sept. 16 say there were three shows nightly at 9:30, 11:30 and 1:30
The Clipper, New York, N.Y.
1923-11-23, p.12
..
..2011
updated
2017-07-10
2017-10-17
2018-07-28
1923 11 24
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

The ad in The Evening Telegram billed the band as "The Washington Real Jazz Orchestra, Elmer Snowden, Leader"
The Evening Telegram, New York, N.Y.
1923-11-24 p.6
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-12
1923 11 25
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

The ad in The Morning Telegraph billed the band as "The Washingtonian Black Dot Orchestra, Elmer Snowden, Leader"
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-11-25 p.8
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-12
1923 11 26
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 27
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 28
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 29
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 11 30
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011

December 1923

1923 12 01
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 02
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

The Morning Telegraph:

'The Hollywood Cabaret and Restaurant's new show, "The Dixie Girl" revue, will enter in upon its fourth week of great success tomorrow night. Duke Ellignton has injected three new song numbers that will be introduced for the first time...'

The ad in The Morning Telegraph billed the band as "THE WASHINGTONIAN BLACK DOT ORCHESTRA, ELMER SNOWDEN, LEADER"
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-12-02 p.8
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-12
1923 12 03
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 04
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 05
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 06
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 07
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08Band and Orchestra Routes, Clipper, New York, N.Y. 1923-12-07 p.24..
.djp2011
updated
2018-07-28
1923 12 08
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 09
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08 The ad in The Morning Telegraph billed the band as "THE WASHINGTONIAN BLACK DOT ORCHESTRA, ELMER SNOWDEN, LEADER"The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-12-09 p.8
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-12
1923 12 10
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 11
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
circa
1923 12 00
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretPERSONNEL CHANGE
Trombone player Charles Irvis joined Snowden's orchestra some time before Dec. 16. The Morning Telegraph Dec.16:

'If you think you have heard trombone players just drop into the Hollywood any evening after theatre time and hear the new trombone player there. The new artist made such a hit a few nights ago that Leo Bernstein signed a contract with him for the remainder of the season.
  Frank Jerrie [sic], one of the partners of the Hollywood, discovered him a few weeks ago while on a trip to Bermuda and brought him to New York. George Hammond always has a front table every night since the new trombone player started and he will wager there is nothing quite so good as he in town...
  The Washingtonian Orchestra, with its leader, Elmer Snowden, played at the Cinderella dancing palace last Wednesday night... and made a wonderful success. The entire revue went along and returned to the Hollywood in time to play the after-theatre show.'

.

The January 4 Clipper reported "Charles Irvis is the new trombonist with the Washingtonians at the Hollywood, New York."

Irvis joined the band in time for the Cinderella Ballroom performance below. His mute technique would become a key part of the Ellington brass section sound, adopted by Bubber Miley and, later, Tricky Sam Nanton, Cootie Williams and their successors.
..
.djpAdded
2012-01-07
updated
2015-06-27
2018-01-14
1923 12 12
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Cinderella Ballroom
Broadway and 48th
New York Clipper:

Some of the small Broadway cabarets are trying a new stunt to boost business. On special nights usually heralded several days in advance, the entire revue of [a] show from the supper club is transported to a popular Broadway dance hall and performed in its entirety. That takes place at an hour before 11, naturally, preceding the regular after-theatre performances in the cabaret."

The Morning Telegraph Dec.16:

'...
  The Washingtonian Orchestra, with its leader, Elmer Snowden, played at the Cinderella dancing palace last Wednesday night... and made a wonderful success. The entire revue went along and returned to the Hollywood in time to play the after-theatre show.'

Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, citing
  • New York Clipper:
    • "Cabaret Shows in Dance Halls," 1923-12-14, p.24
    • 1924-01-04, p.24

  • "Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets," The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.

    • 1923-12-16 p.8
    • 1923-12-23
..
.djpNew
added
2013-09-01
updated
2018-01-14
1923 12 12
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 13
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 14...The Clipper
A listing of the band as the Washington Black Sox was changed to The Washingtonians followed by Snowden's name in brackets.
M. Tucker, Early Years, 1991 p.107.
..(New)
added 2012-01-07
1923 12 14
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 15
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 16
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

(Washingtonian Black Dot Orchestra, Elmer Smowden, leader)
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-12-16 p.8
..
..2011
Updated
2018-01-14
1923 12 17
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 18
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 19
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 20
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 21
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 22
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 23
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Dixie Girl" - see 1923 10 12 and 1923 11 08

(Washingtonian Black Dot Orchestra, Elmer Smowden, leader)
The Telegram reported club owner Leo Bernstein set aside 40 seats for the cast members of 3 Broadway shows because their work prevented them from attending the club until after the theatres closed, and it was hard for them to get tables.
  • The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
    1923-12-23 p.8
  • "News," Evening Telegram, New York, N.Y., 1923-12-29 p.5
..
.djp2011
updated
2013-09-01
2018-01-14
1923 12 24
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

Hostess Mlle. Rubkin Kavlotzky from Cleveland replaced hostess Hazel Clark.
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-12-23 p.8
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-14
1923 12 25
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 26
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 27
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 28
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 29
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1923 12 30
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

("The Washingtonian Black Dot Orchestra, Elmer Snowden, Leader")
The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-12-30 p.10
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-14
1923 12 31
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08

The Morning Telegraph

'At the Hollywood.

  One place along Broadway to-morrow night that is certain to have a capacity New Year's crowd is the Hollywood, Broadway and Forty-ninth street, and for this occasion Leo Bernstein, George Hammond and Frank Jerrie, the owners, will have many surprises for their patrons in the start of the splendid Creole revue. There have been many reservations. Dancing will be from opening until closing time and everything in a way of gaiety. The new Russian hostess, Mlle. Rubkin Kavlotzky, will present a new Russian dance and sing three Russian songs in native costume. Leo Bernstein will wear his new full dress suit and explain the words of the hostess's songs. The Washingtonian Orchestra, in charge of Elmer Snowden, will present timely selections, as well as play for the dance crowds at the Hollywood. If you have not made reservations as yet get busy and do so now.'

The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
1923-12-30 p.10
..
.djp2011
updated
2018-01-14
1923 12 00.New York, N.Y.Fisher Publishing HouseIn late December, Ellington became the rehearsal pianist for Tin Pan Alley music publisher Fred Fisher Company.

The Billboard Magazine:
"Duke Ellington, the pianist, at Hollywood Inn, has succeeded Roland Irving in the professional department of the Fred Fisher publishing house"
M. Tucker, Early Years, 1991 P.104, citing The Billboard Dec.23, 1923
.
.djpNew
added
2012-01-07



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1924


Date of event Ending date
(if different)
City/
Other place
Venue Event/People Primary Reference New
Desor
reference
DEMS
reference
Other
references
Contact
person
Date added
/ updated

January 1924

1924 00 00...PERSONNEL CHANGE
New Desor has Bubber Miley joining the band in 1924, based on recording dates. It seems likely he joined in the latter part of 1923 - see comments above (1923 09 00)
New Desor vol.2..
.djpNew
added 2012-10-23
updated 2014-08-17
1924 01 01
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 02
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 03
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 04
Friday
.New York, N.Y. Private home(Unconfirmed)

Hollywood Club owner Leo Bernstein hosted a party for 50 at his home, to celebrate his 10th wedding anniversary. Members of the revue at the Club entertained the party after dinner. The article does not say if the Washingtonians were there, but it seems likely.
Evening Telegram, "News," 1924-01-05, p.12.
.djpNew
added 2013-09-01
1924 01 04
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 05
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 06
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 07
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 08
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 09
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 10
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 11
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 12
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Dixie Girl" - see 1923 11 08
Rehearsals for the new, 25 member, Revue that was to open Jan.21 started.

"The review now playing has had an excellent run of ten weeks... The music played by the Washingtonian Orchestra is out of the ordinary in dance music. The orchestra,...under the direction of Elmer Snowden, always receives as much applause after each selection as the cabaret revue."

Morning Telegraph, Hotels, Restaurants, and Cabarets, 1923-01-13..
..2011
updated
2013-09-01
1924 01 13
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 14
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 15
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 16
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 17
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 18
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08Clipper, New York, N.Y. 1924-01-018 p.24..
.djp2011
updated
2018-07-28
1924 01 19
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 20
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Dixie Girl" - see 1923 09 01 and 1923 11 08...
..2011
1924 01 211924 04 04New York, N.Y.Hollywood Club
aka
Hollywood Cabaret
Night club residency - see 1923 09 01

"Mississippi Revue" opened.
Elmer Snowden Band
  • Evening Telegram, "News," 1924-01-19, p.13
  • Evening Telegram, "News," 1924-01-26, p.14
  • Ads, Morning Telegraph, 1920-01-24 to 1924-03-30
  • Morning Telegraph, "Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets," 1924-01-20
  • Morning Telegraph, "Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets," 1924-01-27
  • Ads, New York Telegram and Evening Mail, 1924-01-22 to 1924-04-04
..
..2011
updated
2013-09-01
1924 01 22
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 23
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 24
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 25
Friday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 26
Saturday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 27
Sunday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 28
Monday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 29
Tuesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 30
Wednesday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21
Affidavit for Search Warrant, Violation of The National Prohibition Act, sworn by U.S. Treasury Department agent Frank Rickey:

"On January 30, 1924, about 12:00 midnight, I entered the cabaret known as the Hollywood Cabaret, located in the basement of the building at 203 West 49th Street... I was introduced to the man in charge of the cabaret, whose name is Leo Bernstein. Leo Bernstein called the waiter and told him to give us anything we wanted. We were then seated at a table, and we ordered from the waiter drinks of Scotch whiskey, and sandwiches. While drinking the Scotch whiskey, Bernstein came to our table and asked us if everything was alright, and if we were well taken care of. He told us that we could have anything we wanted, and later brought a girl to me and insisted that I dance with her. She claimed to be the "hostess" in the cabaret and offered drinks of Scotch whiskey for which we were compelled to pay $1.50 a drink. I drank some of the whiskey, and as I am familiar with the taste of whiskey I know that it was whiskey. There were a great many people drinking whiskey in said cabaret on this occasion, and various scenes of partial intoxication.

This cabaret is open only at night. From my observations and purchases therein I am positive that liquor is possessed on said purchases.

  • Steven Lasker in DEMS 02,2-19, citing "The New York Herald Tribune" 1924-12-09 p.I-2
  • Mark Berresford: That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman, p.146
  • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.13 - Rickey's affidavit
.DEMS
..2011
updated
2012-09-02
1924 01 31
Thursday
.New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
..2011
1924 01 24...Birth of singer Alice BabsInterview,Leigh Kamman and Alice Babs, 1993...
.djpNew
added
2012 10 10
2016-01-18

February 1924

1924 02 00 .New York City, N.Y..PERSONNEL CHANGES - BAND LEADERS
  • Although in his Muscutt interview, Elmer Snowden claimed to have remained with the Washingtonians at the Hollywood/Kentucky until 1926, he seems to have conflated two stints at this venue.
  • Indications are he left the band in February 1924, and returned in late October, 1925 when Ellington left the Kentucky for an engagement at the ill-fated Club Cameo. Although Ellington's band lost that job the first night, they could not return to the Kentucky because Snowden had been hired to replace them.
  • Snowden, interviewed by Les Muscutt:
    '...they claim that I left and that another banjo player by the name of Freddie Guy went in before we left Baron Wilkins', but that was wrong...he didn't come in until a bit later...
      But then in the last part of '26 I left the band, and turned it over to Duke, although Duke didn't want it, 'cause Duke wanted to be a song writer, you know? His biggest ambition was getting his songs published, but there was nobody else in the band to take it over, 'cause I had another group, a large group which was Armstrong's Plantation Orchestra... And we were at the Bandille Club, that later turned out to be the Nest Club Band. I had ten or twelve different bands working around New York...at one time I had five bands working at once...small combos, you know...we only made one recording with Duke in the group...
      Now when I left the Washingtonians for the first time and turned the band over to Duke... that was in '26, and I organised this Plantation Band they came uptown to the Nest Club and told me I'd got to go back in the band. I didn't see no reason why I'd got to go back in the band, I mean I was doing good, I had this big ten-piece band and we were doing fine, getting nice money. But they said, 'We're not gonna ask you, we're gonna TELL you....you're opening up tomorrow night, you're going back to our club.' So they told the boss, 'You gonna get somebody to play in Elmer's place, or do you want him to get somebody?' So he said, 'You might as well go back with them.' So I did and I went back with Duke, and that's when the second fire came.
      Then I formed another band, another Nest Club band, ...the eight piece band. Now Duke had to leave them to go to a hotel to work, and they came to me. This time they didn't ask me, just me alone, they took my whole band out of the Nest Club. I had to get another whole band to put in there, that was Cliff Jackson, and they called it Elmer Snowden's.'
  • Initially Sonny Greer, and then Ellington, became its leader. Page 35 of the 1924-02-22 "SPECIAL POPULAR MUSIC NUMBER" edition of the New York Clipper, carried an ad showing a band photo with a caption saying the banjo player was now George Francis and Ellington was in charge.
    "Discovering Elmer," undated Snowden interview by Les Muscutt, Storyville,
    •    16 - April/May 1968, pp.3-7
    •    17- June/July 1968 pp.4-7
    •    -18August/September 1968, pp.4-8
  • "SPECIAL POPULAR MUSIC NUMBER" edition, New York Clipper, 1924-02-22 p.35
  • M. Tucker, Early Years, p.109
  • E-mail, Lasker - Palmquist, 2014-08-15
  • Email, S.Lasker-Palmquist 2015-06-25 re 1924 02 00
  • Cambridge Companion, p.xiv
  • Email, Steiner-E. Spring, 2015-03-26
  • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
  • Photos of the six-piece band with Snowden:
    • Vail I p.6
    • Hasse, p.77
    • Collier, Duke Ellington, Oxford University Press edition, 1987
    • DEIP
    • Cover photo, Storyville 80, Dec.1978-Jan.1979
  • "Discovering Elmer," ibid
..
.group effortNew
added
2012-01-07
updated
2015-06-04
2015-06-27
2017-04-26
2017-07-10
2018-07-09
1924 02 00 .New York City, N.Y..PERSONNEL CHANGES
  • If George Francis played with the Washingtonians, it would have been only for short time.
  • DEMS 06/1-29:

    The Washingtonians, NY, Nov24. ...There is uncertainty about the identity of the banjo-player. The old DESOR gives as banjo-player Fred Guy instead of George Francis. Waxworks confirms the presence of Fred Guy as probable. Mark Tucker confirms the presence of George Francis. The New Desor gives George Francis. Frank Dutton in his letter of 21Jun99 also supports Francis.

  • Steven Lasker:

    'George Francis: This name would not be associated with Ellington or the Washingtonians were it not for a single print reference, in an ad the group placed in the 1924-02-22 New York Clipper. The ad quotes a 1923-11-23 Clipper review by Abel Green which named the current members of the band at the Hollywood Café, New York. In November 1923, the Washingtonians included Elmer Snowden, "leader and banjoist, also doubling with soprano sax" and Duke Ellington, "piano-arranger."
      The ad from February 1924 omits Snowden's name -- evidence he'd just left -- and names "George Francis, banjo and singer" instead, also noting "Duke Ellington leads from the piano and also arranges the selections."
      Brooks Kerr relates that Greer was briefly made leader until, according to Greer (quoted by Burt Korall, Downbeat, 1969-07-13, p.21): "It didn't take long before we thrust leadership on Duke. He didn't want it, but his disposition was better balanced than ours. He could keep us in line without doing too much. We were a pretty wild bunch in those days, myself in particular."
      Brooks also recalls that Sonny more than once — while in his cups — whined to Ellington that "You stole my band!"
      As for George Francis, if indeed this was a real person, he could not have been a Washingtonian for very long, since Fred Guy told John McDonough (Downbeat, 1969-04-17 p.16) he joined the band in February 1924; Brooks Kerr adds that Guy told him the same thing.
      Guy's name is listed alongside those of his fellow Washingtonians in the June 1924 edition of International Musician, and he confirmed to Kerr that he was the banjoist heard on Choo Choo and Rainy Nights (Blu-Disc T1002, recorded November 1924).'

  • Webmaster's comment:

    A musician named George Francis lodged at 883 West 145th Street, Manhattan Borough, New York, according to the 1920 census, and Lasker writes:

    'According to Brian Rust's "Jazz Records, 1897-1942," a George Francis played guitar on a record date led by Ollie Shephard for A.R.C. on 1939-05-02.'

  • While Cambridge Companion says:

    'In late fall,Snowden breaks with the band, which becomes "The Washingtonians" under the leadership of Ellington and Greer.'

    Ken Steiner points out:

    'Right at the beginning of the band's opening at the Hollywood, they were identified in ads under variations of the title Washingtonians. An ad in the September 1, 1923 New York Evening Telegram lists the band as "The Washingtonian Black Dot Orchestra," and the September 2, 1923 New York Morning Telegraph advertises the band as the "Washingtonians Jazz Orchestra." How have you [Cambridge Companion] identified Snowden's departure for late fall? Abel Green's important review in the November 23, 1923 New York Clipper mentions Snowden.'

  • Steven Lasker identifies Cambridge Companion's source:

    Per Lawrence, p.407: "Late fall, 1923: Snowden breaks with the rest of the band; Ellington and Greer form new group called the Washingtonians, featuring Miley, Hardwick, and banjo player George Irvis [sic!] to replace Snowden."

    • "SPECIAL POPULAR MUSIC NUMBER" edition, New York Clipper, 1924-02-22 p.35
    • M. Tucker, Early Years, p.109
    • E-mail, Lasker - Palmquist, 2014-08-15
    • Email, S.Lasker-Palmquist
      • 2015-06-25 re 1924 02 00
      • 2017-03-04
      • 2018-08-02 re Francis
    • Cambridge Companion, p.xiv
    • Email, Steiner-E. Spring, 2015-03-26
    • Photos of the six-piece band with Snowden:
      • Vail I p.6
      • Hasse, p.77
      • Collier, Duke Ellington, Oxford University Press edition, 1987
      • DEIP
      • Cover photo, Storyville 80, Dec.1978-Jan.1979
    • "Discovering Elmer,"Storyville,
      • April/May 1968, pp.3-7
      • June/July 1968 pp.4-7
    ..
    .group effortNew
    added
    2012-01-07
    updated
    2015-06-04
    2015-06-27
    2017-04-26
    2017-07-10
    2018-08-03
    1924 02 01
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Mississippi Revue" - see 1924 01 21
    The Washingtonians
    ..
    ..Added
    2011
    1924 02 02
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 03
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 04
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 05
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 06
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Cinderella Ballroom(Unconfirmed)

    The Mississippi Revue appeared at the Cinderella Ballroom in the evening, probably on February 6. They proved so popular that they were asked to return the following Wednesday.
    New York Telegram and Evening Mail, "News," 1924-02-09, p.5.
    .djp from WTDMNew
    added 2013-09-01
    1924 02 06
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 07
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 08
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 09
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 10.New York, N.Y..Banjoist and rhythm guitarist Fred Guy, born 1899 05 23, joined the band ..DEMS
    .S.Hoefsmit2011
    updated
    2014-04-18
    1924 02 10
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Mississippi Revue" - see 1924 01 21
    The Morning Telegraph reported three musicians were added to the Washingtonians Black Dot Band.
    Morning Telegraph, "Hotels Restaurants and Cabarets," 1924-02-10..
    .djp2011
    updated
    2013-09-01
    1924 02 11
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 12
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 13
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 14
    Thursday
    Valentine's Day
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 15
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 16
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 17
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 18
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 19
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 20
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Cinderella Ballroom
    Broadway & 48th St.
    (Unconfirmed)

    The Mississippi Revue were asked to appear a second time at the Cinderella Ballroom in the evening of Feb. 13 but the appearance was postponed a week.
    New York Telegram and Evening Mail, "News,"
    • 1924-02-09, p.5
    • 1924-02-16, p.6
    .
    .djp from Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club2011
    updated
    2013-09-01
    1924 02 20
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 21
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 22
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21
    This ad appeared in Clipper with a photograph between the columns:
    WASHINGTONIANS
    Combination of Symphonic Jazz Plus Versatility

    NOW PLAYING AT THE HOLLYWOOD CAFE, NEW YORK

    Where the Professional Musician Makes His Rendezvous'
    Here's What ABEL Says About Us:
      This colored band is plenty torrid and includes a trumpet player who never need doff his chapeau to any cornetist in the business. He exacts the eeriest sort of modulations and "singing" notes heard.
      The boys can seemingly satisfy without exerting themselves, but for the benefit of the Clipper reviewer they brought out a variety of instruments upon which each demonstrated his versatility. And how!
      "Duke Ellington leads from the piano and also arranges the selections. "Bub" Miley is the "hot" cornetist, doubling with the melophone. Charles Irvis, trombone. Sonny Greer specializes in the vocal interludes when not at the traps; Otto Hardwick, saxophone and violin; George Francis, banjo and singer.
      The boys look neat in dress suitas and labor hard but not in vain at their music. They disclose painstaking rehearsal, playing without music.
    Clipper, New York, N.Y. 1924-02-22 p.35..
    .djp2011
    updated
    2018-07-28
    1924 02 23
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21
    The club was raided by federal agents, who seized alcohol. At the end of the year, the US Court of Appeals ordered the liquor returned on a technicality invalidating the search warrant.

    Sworn statement of Agent Thomas Shannon:

    Search warrant executed at 2:15 am on February 24th, 1924, at 203 W.49th Street, NYC, found pint whiskey in pitcher in kitchen, 4 oz. scotch whiskey in glass in kitchen, 6 oz. whiskey in three separate glasses on table near kitchen door."

    On 1924-12-08 the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled the seized liquor should be returned because the search warrant was invalid. The prohibition agents raided at night but the warrant was valid during daytime hours only.
    • Steven Lasker in DEMS 02,2-19, citing "The New York Herald Tribune" 1924-12-09 p.I-2
    • Mark Berresford: That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman, p.146
    • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.15 - Shannon statement
    .DEMS
    .djp2011
    updated
    2013-09-02
    1924 02 24
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Mississippi Revue" - see 1924 01 21..
    ..2011
    updated
    2012-12-07
    1924 02 25
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 26
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 27
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 28
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 02 29
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011

    March 1924

    1924 03 01
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 02
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 03
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 04
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 05
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 06
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 07
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 08
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret"Mississippi Revue" - see 1924 01 21
    The New York Telegram and Evening Mail reported the club was continuing its policy of adding new principals to revues as their run lengthened, and had added two for the coming Monday to strengthen the show for another month's run.

    The paper reported Ellington was now the leader of the Washington Black Dot orchestra, and the revue was to be presented at the Cinderella Ballroom the following Wednesday.

    Snowden continued to be shown as leader in the weekly Morning Telegraph ads, and in the New York Clipper.
    New York Telegram and Evening Mail, 1924-03-08, p.14..
    .djp2011
    1924 03 09
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 10
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y..Peripheral event
    Hollywood owner Leo Bernstein and a Sam Shiener pled not guilty to possessing and selling two drinks of whiskey to the Treasury agent. They appear to have been convicted because they were each fined $100 on March 24.

    Bernstein, co-owner George Hammond, Schiener and a Sam Silverstein also pled not guilty to possessing liquor (1 pint and 10 ounces). The outcome of these charges is not known, other than Silverstein was released on $500 bail. This may be the case that ended July 28 1925 when the charges were dismissed.
    Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.15...
    .djpNew
    added 2013-09-01
    1924 03 10
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 11
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 12
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Cinderella Ballroom,
    Broadway & 48th St.
    (Unconfirmed)

    Vail's March 1924 entry:

    "The Washingtonians begin doubling at the Cinderella Ballroom before the show at the Hollywood Club."

    Götting places the band at the Cinderella on February 20 and March 12, citing Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club.Tucker:

    "Performers from both the Hollywood and the Club Alabam traveled to the Cinderella Ballroom... where 'these added attractions have been successful...and have been the means of drawing an element a bit above the usual dance hall following.' Such appearances may have brought bands additional jobs, thus benefiting the musicians as much as their club sponsors.  When the Washingtonians made their Haverhill, Massachusetts, debut early in 1925, they were identified as coming not from the Hollywood but 'direct from the Cinderella ballroom on Broadway.'"

    • Vail I
    • M. Tucker, Early Years, p.106 citing The Clipper 1924-03-13 p.18
    • Götting, citing Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club
    • New York Telegram and Evening Mail, 1924-03-08, p.14
    ..
    .djp2011
    updated
    2013-01-01
    1924 03 12
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 13
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 14
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 15
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 16
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 17
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 18
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 19
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 20
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 21
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 22
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 23
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 24
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Cinderella Ballroom
    Broadway & 48th St.
    (Unconfirmed)

    The Mississippi Revue was scheduled for a one-hour performance at the Cinderella Ballroom.
    Morning Telegraph "Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets," 1924-03-09..
    .djp from Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar ClubNew
    added 2013-09-01
    1924 03 24
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 25
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 26
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 27
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 28
    Friday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 29
    Saturday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 30
    Sunday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 03 31
    Monday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011

    April 1924

    1924 04 01
    Tuesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 04 02
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 01 21...
    ..2011
    1924 04 03
    Thursday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretNight club residency with "Mississippi Revue" - see 1924 01 21
    Last night of engagement
    The Hollywood burned down early the next morning. All the Mississippi Revue costumes and some musical instruments were destroyed. The club was not insured and the loss came to about $10,000.

    This was the first of three fires in this location during Ellington's tenure.

    When the club reopened May 1, the house band was led by James P. Johnson, suggesting the Washingtonians had other work.

    The Washingtonians played in New England from about April 12 to 26, and returned to the Hollywood on June 10.
  • Elmer Snowden, interviewed by Les Muscutt, in Storyville:

    'You know we'd always wanted to work on Broadway, everybody did....and we were there about two years [recte 7 months] and then the place burned down. But now here's the funny part about it...It was a place called the Hollywood Club. Well now, we used to leave our instruments there every night. So one night the big boss said, 'Take your instruments home tonight.'
      I couldn't understand why we had to take our instruments home...we had been there over two years and we had a little room, a dressing room, but he said, 'Now do like I tell you and take your instruments home!' So I said, 'What's the matter, are we fired?' And he said, 'No you're not fired, but just take your stuff outa here.' It so happened I took my banjo...I always took my banjo home every night, but I was playing saxophone then...I had three saxes, a Baritone, a C Melody and a C Soprano...and a guitar, and my banjo...1 couldn't take 'em all anyway, so I took my banjo and put the rest of them back in our room, this was on the first floor.

      About two o'clock the next afternoon we heard the fire engines blasting away...those fire engines was jumping and I thought there's a big fire some place. So we heard it on the radio...that the HOLLYWOOD had burned down, we took no notice, we thought it must be some big club some-place...and then we found out it was our place on 38th and Broadway, and we went down there and the place was gutted! Everything was gone. So I said, 'THAT'S the reason he told us to take our stuff home.'

      So after that they rebuilt it, it took about three months mebbe, and we reopened down in the basement and they called the club KENTUCKY. And so we were in that place about a year to a year and a half and the guy comes up one night and says, 'I want you to take your instruments home.' So I said, 'OH NO, NOT AGAIN!'

    • Mark Berresford: That's Got 'Em!: The Life and Music of Wilbur C. Sweatman, p.146
    • New York Times "Fire Record" 1924-04-05
    • Morning Telegraph 1924-04-13
    • S. Lasker, book to The Duke Ellington Centennial Edition, RCA Victor CD box set 09026-63386-2, p.23
    ..
    ..2011
    updated
    2013-09
    2014-12-30
    2018-07-09
    1924 04 04
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 05
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 06
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 07
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 08
    Tuesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 09
    Wednesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 10
    Thursday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 11
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 12
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 13
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 14
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 15
    Tuesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 16
    Wednesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 17
    Thursday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 18
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 19
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 20
    Easter Sunday
    .Lynn, Mass.Waldorf TheatreBeginning of the first New England tour by The Washingtonians. Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.16, citing Lynn Daily News 1924-04-18..
    ..Added
    2011
    1924 04 21
    Easter Monday
    .Salem, Mass.Charleshurst BallroomPerformance for the Salem Young Men's Christian Temperance Society as 'Duke Ellington's Broadway Recording Orchestra.'
    Salem Evening News:

    "Real jazz music...will be the principal attraction at the Waldorf,...presented by Duke Ellington's Hollywood Cafe Jazz Orchestra which has been filling a week's engagement in Boston since its own cafe was destroyed by fire. There are eight musicians in the act, each an expert soloist, and Sundays last summer played at the New York Winter Garden shows. Three other high class vaudeville acts, music by the Waldorf's own orchestra and 'Storm Swept' for a feature picture will also be on the Sunday program."

    Barry Ulanov:

    "They played in Salem at the Charleshurst Ballroom. Sometimes you could find them, before or after hours. More often you could not. Duke was usually out with the police force's Lieutenant Bates, who later became Salem's Mayor, and then its Representative in Congress. Or, with the other Washingtonians, he was over at the Coast Guard barracks, or being whisked around the Salem-Marblehead Harbor."


    Note Mr. Bates was elected mayor in 1924.

    Charleshurst owner Charles Shribman had been booking bands into New England in the early 1920s. In 1924 he and other New England ballroom managers formed a performance circuit.
    • Steiner Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.16, citing Salem Evening News 1924-04-21
    • M. Tucker, Early Years, pp.183, 184 & 300
    • Ulanov (ibid.), p.52
    ..
    .Steiner & djp updated 2012-01-04
    1924 04 22
    Tuesday
    .Lawrence, Mass.Truell Hall.Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.16, citing Lowell Sun 1924-04-22, p.16..
    ..Added
    2011
    1924 04 23
    Wednesday
    .Gloucester, Mass.Hawthorne InnOne-nighterEmail, Steiner-Palmquist 2018-08-22 citing Gloucester Daily Times, April 23, 1924) ..
    .ks2018-08-23
    1924 04 24
    Thursday
    .Lowell, Mass.Associate HallDance

    First of two dances booked here for the band, admission 50 cents.
    Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.16, citing Lowell Sun:
    • Announcement, 1924-04-16, p.8
    • Announcement, 1924-04-24, p.2
    • ad, 1924-04-24
    • Review, 1924-04-25, p.14
    ..
    ..2011
    updated
    2013-09-02
    1924 04 25
    Friday
    .Salem, Mass.College InnDance, sharing the bandstand with a local orchestra led by Frank Ward. Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.16, citing Salem Evening News 1924-04-24..
    ..2011
    updated
    2013-09-02
    1924 04 26
    Saturday
    .Lowell, Mass.Associate HallDance

    "... will engage in a battle of music with Miner-Doyle's orchestra. The admission ...is 50 cents with free checking".
    The Associate Hall was a five-storey building with retail businesses on the ground floor, offices upstairs, and apparently the dance hall or club on the top floor.

    At 12:30 am Sunday morning, a fire was discovered in the Club room on the top floor of the Associate building and appeared to be a minor blaze. The alarm was sounded at 12:34 am, and fire companies responded. The fire spread, and ultimately destroyed three buildings and damaged others. A fire captain was killed after being crushed under a falling wall, 10 other firemen were injured and a fire truck was destroyed. This was the biggest fire in Lowell's history.

    It seems likely the dance would have still been underway when the alarm was first sounded, but the newspaper coverage does not mention the dance.
    • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.16, citing Lowell Sun:
      • 1924-04-16, p.8
      • 1924-04-24, p.2
      • 1924-04-28, pp. 1,4
    • 1924-04-25
    ..
    ..2011
    updated
    2013-09-02
    1924 04 27
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 28
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ..
    1924 04 29
    Tuesday
    Ellington's birthday
    ...activities not documented
    ...
    ..
    1924 04 30
    Wednesday
    .Lynn, Mass.Odd Fellows' HallOne-nighterEmail, Steiner-Palmquist 2018-08-22 citing Lynn Tribune News, April 30, 1924..
    .ks2018-08-23

    May 1924

    1924 05 01
    Monday
    ... Peripheral event
    The Hollywood reopened with a new Leonard Harper revue, advertised both as The Virginia Girls and The Virginian Girls. Its music was written by Jimmie (James P.) Johnson who led the band initially. Benny Carter and Sidney Bechet were in the Johnson band but Johnson fired Bechet, and later was fired himself.

    Although Bechet said he and Ellington replaced Johnson at the club, the club hired an unnamed group before Ellington went back in - see 1924 05 15 and 1924 06 10
    • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.17
    • John Chilton Sidney Bechet: The Wizard of Jazz, pp. 67-68
    • Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.24 citing Will Marion Cook's letter in The Chicago Defender, 1924-03-22, s.I p.7
    • Sidney Bechet, Treat It Gentle, Hill and Wang, New York, 1960, pp.140-148
    ..
    .djpNew
    added
    2015-10-01
    1924 05 01
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 02
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 03
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 04
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 05
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 06
    Tuesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 07
    Wednesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 08
    Thursday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 09
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 10
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 11
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 12
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 13
    Tuesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 14
    Wednesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 15
    Thursday
    ...activities not documented..
    ...
    1924 05 15
    Thursday
    ... Peripheral event
    The Hollywood replaced the Johnson band with an unnamed French orchestra. The Morning Telegraph:

    'The Hollywood Cabaret introduced its new French jazz orchestra last Thursday night.'

    Ken Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.17, citing Morning Telegraph, New York, 1924-05-18..
    ..Added 2014-08-17
    1924 05 16
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 17
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 18
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 19
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 20
    Tuesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 21
    Wednesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 21
    Wednesday
    .New York, N.Y.Hollywood Cabaret Peripheral event
    The New York Sun reported Federal Judge Augustus N. Hand signed orders against the Picadilly Rendezvous, the Silver Slipper and the "restaurant at 203 West Forty-Ninth" restraining the sale of liquor until "the hearing on the padlock case, which it is expected will come up for trial in June."
    New York Sun, 1924-05-21, p.1..
    .djpNew
    added 2012-12-26
    1924 05 22
    Thursday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 23
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 24
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 24
    Saturday
    7 PM
    .New York, N.Y.Corner of
    134th St. and
    Seventh Ave.
    Peripheral event
    Barron Wilkins murdered
    Julius William "Yellow Charleston" Miller shot William Harris to death on May 24. Fleeing the scene, he approached Barron De Ware Wilkins, owner of Barron's Exclusive Club, Inc. (the Exclusive Club), outside the club, to ask for $100 to help him get away. When Wilkins declined, Miller shot him four times. Wilkins was taken to Harlem Hospital by taxicab, and died there.

    Miller was convicted of first degree murder and in November was sentenced to die in December 1924. His execution didn't take place, however, until September 1925.

    Steven Lasker:

    'Note that Barron Wilkins' first name is consistently misspelled "Baron" in the transcript.

    The club was definitely "Barron's Exclusive Club," as per the club's signage, visible in a photograph reproduced on page 194 of "Jazz: A History of the New York Scene" by Charters and Kunstadt. However, note that the photo's caption misstates the location as "103rd Street and Seventh Avenue"; the actual location is 198 West 134th Street, and the building, which still stands, can be viewed on Google Street view.

    According to George Hoefer's "Harlem Jazz Spots Then and Now" (found in the booklet to Columbia set C3L 33, "The Sound of Harlem"), the "same downstairs [i.e., basement] room" where Barron's Exclusive Club was located became, from 1936 to 1943, Clark Monroe's Uptown House, one of two famous birthplaces of bop music (Minton's Playhouse being the other).'

    ..
    .djpNew
    added
    2012-07-30
    updated
    2012-12-29
    2018-08-08
    1924 05 25
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 26
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 27
    Tuesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 28
    Wednesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 29
    Thursday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 30
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 05 31
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...

    June 1924

    1924 06 00...The June 1924 edition of International Musician showed Edward K. Ellington, Fred L. Guy, William Greer and Charles Irvis in the new members list for Local 802 of the American Federation of Musicians.

    The same edition lists Arthur P. Whetsel as transferring from Local 710 (Washington), but the August edition shows Whetsel in the "transfers withdrawn" list. It isn't clear why the 19-year old Whetsel would have cancelled his transfer since he was still living and working in New York as a musician in November 1924 when he applied for his passport.
    Local 802 was formed in 1921 by the American Federation of Musicians to replace Local 310, the Musicians Mutual Protective Union. Local 310 was incorporated under state jurisdiction and was not subject to A.F.of M. bylaws. There was a dispute between the two union locals over who would represent thousands of musicians in New York.
    Several 1923 articles in Variety reported that nearly all the members of Local 802 were also members of M.M.P.A. because the M.M.P.A. provided benefits and owned valuable real property. As of July 1923, vaudeville scale in New York was $52 weekly, but in Chicago, $75.
    ..
    ., djpNew
    added 2013-09-01
    updated 2014-06-17
    2014-08-13
    2017-10-20
    1924 06 01
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 02
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 03
    Tuesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 04
    Wednesday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 05
    Thursday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 06
    Friday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 07
    Saturday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 08
    Sunday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    1924 06 09
    Monday
    ...activities not documented...
    ...
    circa
    1924 06 10
    ...PERSONNEL CHANGE
    • Ellington recalled hearing Sidney Bechet (soprano saxophone and clarinet), at the Howard Theatre in Washington around 1921, and Bechet spoke of meeting Ellington in Washington in 1922.
    • Ellington said Bechet toured New England with the Washingtonians.
    • Bechet (1897-1959) claimed he joined the Washingtonians when they returned to the Kentucky Club after it fired James P. Johnson.
    Notes:
    • Chilton has Bechet in Europe from June 1919 to November 1922, then playing with Ford Dabney before acting and playing in Donald Haywood's 'How Come?' on tour.
    • Variety 1923-01-23 p.28 says "The Howard, Washington's colored theatre, has "How Come?"
    • Chilton has Bechet quitting the show in New York in the spring of 1923.

    Bechet:

    '  I met Duke in Washington the time that I was there in How Come [see note]. He was hanging around the stage door then, coming in all the time when we were doing our rehearsals and asking to play the piano. He played it James P. Johnson fashion then. At that time, 1922, he and Elmer Snowden had a band together called the Washingtonians, and we hung out some; we were good buddies for hanging out together. Duke was a fine man to be with, an easy man in himself. I'll come back to him.
      The Seven Eleven show finished after a year or so and I was in New York. I joined James P. Johnson and we played at the Old Kentucky Club over on Eighth Avenue off Broadway. [Bechet then describes being fired by Johnson, and Johnson being fired in turn by the club.]
      ... and after James P. had got me out..., he went and got himself fired. And the band which took his place was Duke and me.
      Duke had come up to New York. He remembered me from Washington and he wanted to make up a band together, so we did that. And that was a fine time, playing with Duke in 1924. He had his feelings inside the music where they belonged, and none of any kind of meanness outside the music. When we played, we were playing together, doing what the music wanted done with none of this personal me me feuding through what we were doing. That music was just liking itself because we let it be itself. ... [Duke]...wasn't as good a piano player as he is now, but he had right feelings, and he let the music come first. That was a good time in that Kentucky Club. We made some records, too, while we were together, but for some reason I don't know, they were never released. I feel real sad about that because they were good records, and now there is no trace of them.
      That's why when Duke and I went in there, we had this big success. We were working around each other. We were using our feelings, and the people listening had to feel because we were feeling it. There was none of this trying to give a name to Jazz, Orchestrational Jazz, Concert Jazz, Fancy-Arrangement Jazz - there wasn't any of that kind of pushing from Duke.
      But after a time, even then, I was still having trouble with two fellows in the band ... they were Bubber Miley and Charlie Irvis, the trumpet and trombone. ... When I first joined the band Bubber Miley was in jail over some trouble concerning a girl. And the first money that was put up for him, the pool that was started for having him put on bail so he could come join the band, it was from me. But still, just as soon as we were all working in the band, I could see Bubber and Charlie still had this trouble going. There was still this talking aside business in the music. There was a competition for the wrong things at the wrong time: all this tugging when they should be carrying, and sulking when they should be following, and this refusing to be with the music when they should be leading.
      Everyone in the band could feel that. There was a fellow with us, Otto Hardwick was his name, who played clarinet and alto saxophone. He was my friend and he tried to talk to them, tell them what was the sense, they'd be hurting themselves. But no, they went right on making it hard.
      At that time Otto, Duke and myself used to go over to Duke's place evenings to fool around on the piano, talk how we were going to build this thing with all the band. Duke, he'd be making arrangements for the band - not this kind of hit-parade arrangements I been saying about, but a kind of dividing of the piece, placing its parts. What we were after, it was to get the feeling for the band, playing it together. That way the music is working for itself. From hearing Otto play to me, me playing to Otto - playing for each other - we were making up what the band was to be, how it was to feel itself. The arrangements, they came out of that. And that was good times there in Duke's apartment. That was real music. But still, I could see those were just evenings after a fashion - there wasn't going to be much to it. That Bubber Miley and Charlie, they had it all too uncomfortable.
      So I had some money coming to me from some records I'd made, and I thought I'd like to open my own cabaret. So that's just the way of it...
      But that Duke - I've seen him off and on all these years. There's no limit to what I can say about Duke. He's a man with a life in him. And some of the things he's done are really great; he's a real musicianer. Duke, he belongs to the music, and the music belongs to him.'

    It isn't certain when Bechet left The Washingtonians; in May 1925 he is reported to have been added to the musical unit in Seven-Eleven.

    • MIMM p.47
    • Sidney Bechet: Treat It Gentle, pp.141-143
    • John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz, fourth edition 1985 (soft cover), p.27
    .DEMS
    .
      .djpNew
      added
      2015-10-01
      updated
      2018-11-18
      1924 06 10
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency resumed, with "The Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01
      Ellington and the Washingtonians with Sidney Bechet return to replace James P. Johnson's band.
      While the New York Times reported Judgement by default will be taken today against the Hollywood Restuarant...The place will be closed for one year. - this apparently didn't happen. It seems likely the club challenged the charges, for its liquor was returned in December.
      ..
      ..Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club2011
      updated
      2013-09-01
      2014-03-29
      2015-10-01
      2018-11-18
      1924 06 11
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 12
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 13
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 14
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 15
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 16
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 17
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 18
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 19
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 20
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 21
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 22
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 23
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 24
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 25
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 26
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 27
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 28
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 29
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 06 30
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011

      July 1924

      1924 07 01
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 02
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 03
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 04
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 05
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 06
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 07
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 08
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 09
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 10
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 11
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 12
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 13
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 14
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency, "Virginia Girls" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 06 10...
      ..2011
      1924 07 15
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretSunday's Morning Telegraph said George Hammond, partner in the Hollywood, planned to take the entire revue to the Empire Race Track as his guests, then take them, including the Hollywood Orchestra, home. The Orchestra would serenade his wife with a few tunes for her birthday.Morning Telegraph, Hotels, Restaurants and Cabarets, 1924-07-13..
      ..New
      added 2013-09-02
      1924 07 15
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretSteiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, says the Morning Telegraph Hotels Restaurants and Cabarets column in the July 13 edition of the Morning Telegraph is the last mention of the Hollywood until the autumn. The column itself says the warm weather did not affect the club and Bernstein said it would remain open all summer.

      Steiner suggests The Washingtonians may have continued at the club for the rest of the summer, or may have toured New England, since Ellington recalled, in MIMM, a summer tour of New England with Bechet, and it seems that can only have been this summer.

      Until evidence of their activities between July 16 and Sept.5 is found, we simply say this period is undocumented.
      ...
      ..2011
      1924 07 16
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ..2011
      1924 07 17
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 18
      Friday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 19
      Saturday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 20
      Sunday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 21
      Monday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 22
      Tuesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 23
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 24
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 25
      Friday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 26
      Saturday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 27
      Sunday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 28
      Monday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 29
      Tuesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 30
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 07 31
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...

      August 1924

      1924 08 01
      Friday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 02
      Saturday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 03
      Sunday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 04
      Monday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 05
      Tuesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 06
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 07
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 08
      Friday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 08
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.. Peripheral event
      S.Lasker

      'In New York City, the vaudeville comedy team of Gus Van and Joe Schenck record Choo Choo (Gotta Hurry Home). Released circa early September 1924 on Columbia 197-D, this is both the earliest documented recording of an Ellington composition as well as the first Ellington song to be issued on a record. The label credits the song to "Ringle, Ellington and Schafer." This marked the first appearance of Ellington's name on a record label.'

      E-mail S.Lasker-Palmquist 2015-02-07..
      .slNew
      added 2015-02-08
      1924 08 09
      Saturday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 10
      Sunday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 11
      Monday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 12
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y..Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 12
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.. Peripheral event
      Some speculate Ellington was the pianist for Wilbur C. Sweatman's August 12 Gennett recording session in which Sweatman made an unreleased recording of Battleship Kate. The Gennett files don't show personnel present at the date other than Sweatman. The report that Ellington was on the date originated in the autobiography of Mike Danzi, "American Musician in Germany, 1924-39" (Schmitten, Germany, 1986). Danzi recalled that he playing banjo on Battleship Kate and Ellington played piano. Steven Lasker:

      '...what I hear on the record leads me to conclude that contrary to Mike Danzi's recollection, the pianist on Sweatman's 10oct24 Battleship Kate isn't Ellington...Danzi might instead have recalled an unissued Gennett session, held circa 12Aug24, at which Sweatman recorded a version of Battleship Kate that was never issued. '

      Steven points out that Sweatman himself denied ever having recorded with Ellington (see DEMS 05/3-32).
      ..DEMS
      .SL2011
      updated
      2014-03-30
      2014-08-17
      2015-03-23
      1924 08 13
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 14
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 15
      Friday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 16
      Saturday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 17
      Sunday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 18
      Monday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 19
      Tuesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 20
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 21
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 22
      Friday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 23
      Saturday
      ...Activities not documented
      possibly working at the Hollywood - see 1924 07 15 - or touring New England (perhaps with Bechet)
      The August 23 edition of the Chicago Defender reported Otto Hardwick was now with the White Brothers orchestra in Chicago. Since the Defender is dated the end of the week it is published, the report could be from up to two weeks before August 23.
      ...
      ...
      1924 08 24
      Sunday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 25
      Monday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 26
      Tuesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 27
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 28
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 29
      Friday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 30
      Saturday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 08 31
      Sunday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...

      September 1924

      1924 09 01
      Monday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 09 02
      Tuesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 09 03
      Wednesday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 09 04
      Thursday
      ...Activities not documented - see 1924 07 15...
      ...
      1924 09 05
      Friday
      ...A copyright application with sheet music published by Broadway Music Corp. for Choo-Choo (I Gotta Hurry Home) was received by the copyright office. It showed music by Duke Ellington and words by Dave Ringle and Bob Schafer.Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.25..
      .djp2014-03-29
      1924 09 05
      Friday
      ...Musicians' activities not documented
      - see 1924 07 15
      ...
      ...
      1924 09 06
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency (see 1923 09 01) continues (or resumes?), with the new Leonard Harper revue, "Creole Follies," which played 2 shows nightly.
      Hollywood ads refer to the band either as "Washingtonian's Hollywood Jazz Orchestra" or "Washington's Hollywood Jazz Orchestra."
      Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, pp.18-19..
      .djp2011
      updated
      2013-09-03
      1924 09 07
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 08
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 09
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y.
      1924-09-09 p.8
      ..
      ..2011
      updated
      2018-01-07
      1924 09 10
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 11
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 12
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 13
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 14
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 15
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 16
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 17
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 18
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06
      Possible Gennett recording session - see 1924 09 20
      ...
      .sl2011
      1924 09 19
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 20
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.. Peripheral event
      DEMS 1989/2 seems to suggest an early edition of Timner's Ellingtonia had Ellington on piano in a Sweatman recording session on this date.

      The information is vague, but originated with a statement attributed to banjoist Mike Danzi, who claimed to have played with Duke in a Sweatman session.
      Steven Lasker:

      'The [Sweatman] session which produced the issued Gennett recording of Battleship Kate is dated to September 18, 1924 in the latest (2002, Mainspring Press) edition of Brian Rust's "Jazz and Ragtime Records (1897-1942)"; all previous editions gave the date as September 20, 1924. I don't know the basis for the change -- and haven't viewed the Gennett file cards for this session, which are likely at the Institute of Jazz Studies.'

      The report that Ellington was on the date originated in Mike Danzi's autobiography, "American Musician in Germany, 1924-39" (Schmitten, Germany, 1986). Danzi recalled playing banjo on Battleship Kate and Ellington played piano. Steven Lasker:

      '...what I hear on the record leads me to conclude that contrary to Mike Danzi's recollection, the pianist on Sweatman's 10oct24 Battleship Kate isn't Ellington...Danzi might instead have recalled an unissued Gennett session, called circa 12Aug24, at which Sweatman recorded a version of Battleship Kate that was never issued. '

      However, Mr. Lasker also points out that Sweatman himself denied every having recorded with Ellington (see DEMS 05/3-32).
      ..DEMS
      .Lasker email 2014-08-152011
      updated
      2014-03-30
      2013-09-03
      2014-08-17
      1924 09 20
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 21
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 22
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 23
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 24
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 25
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub date with "Creole Follies" revue
      This night was publicized as a new opening of Creole Follies, with 2 shows nightly.

      The show may or may not have been rewritten, but it appears a singer, Miss Leona Williams, and a dancer, Mr. Arthur Bryson, were added to the show.
      ...
      ..2011
      1924 09 26
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with a second, new version of the "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01 and 1924 09 06...
      ..2011
      1924 09 27
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 09 28
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 09 29
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 09 30
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011

      October 1924

      1924 10 01
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 02
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 03
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 04
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 05
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 06
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 07
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 08
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 09
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 10
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 11
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 12
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 13
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 14
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 15
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 16
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 17
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 18
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 19
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 20
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 21
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 22
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 23
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 24
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 25
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 26
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 27
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 28
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 29
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 30
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 10 31
      Friday
      Halloween
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011

      November 1924

      1924 11 00.New York, N.Y.Possibly at the Emerson Recording Laboratories
      206 Fifth Ave.
      Blu-Disc recording session
      Ellington, Alberta Prime, Greer

      (Steven Lasker advises Alberta Prime was really named "Pryme," but the label of her Blu-Disc record shows "Prime.")
      Titles recorded:
      • It's Gonna Be a Cold, Cold Winter
      • Parlor Social De Luxe
      This session, and the identity of Alberta Prime, are discussed on p.16 of DEMS 2000-4. Steven Lasker provides more information about her in his book on the Washingtonians.

      See Steven Lasker's detailed analsyis of Ellington's Blu-Disc recordings in DEMS 04/3-57, parts 2 and 3.
      • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, privately published, 2006, p.26
      • Email Lasker-Palmquist 2014-09-01
      • Email Lasker-Palmquist
        • 2015-02-05
        • 2017-01-24
      New Desor
      DE2401
      DEMS
      .djp2011
      updated
      2013-03-10
      2014-09-01
      2015-02-06
      2017-01-25
      1924 11 00.New York, N.Y.Possibly at the Emerson Recording Laboratories
      206 Fifth Ave.
      Blu-Disc recording session
      The Washingtonians
      Jo. Trent and the D C'Ns
      Sunny and the D C'Ns

      Miley, Irvis, Hardwick, Ellington, *Guy, Greer, Trent

      Titles recorded:
      • Choo Choo
      • Rainy Nights
      • Deacon Jazz
      • Oh How I Love My Darling
      *Some discographies report George Francis played banjo on this recording but there is no apparent evidence and Guy joined the band on banjo in February, 1924 — see DEMS 06/1-29 for this discussion.

      It seems likely to have been Fred Guy, since he joined the band in February and Steven Lasker points out:

      'Guy identified himself on Choo Choo/Rainy Nights to Brooks Kerr when they listened to the two sides together in 1969. '

      • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, privately published, *2006
      • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2015-06-26
      New Desor
      DE2402
      DEMS
      .S.Hoefsmit (06,1-29) 2011, updated 2012-01-07

      2014-02-09
      2015-06-26
      1924 11 01
      Saturday
      ...A copyright application with a lead sheet for Pretty Soft for You was received by the copyright office, copyright claimed by Clarence Williams Co., music by Duke Ellington and words by Jo. Trent.Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.25..
      .djp2014-03-29
      1924 11 01
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 02
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 03
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 04
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 05
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 06
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 07
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 08
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27

      The New York Telegram reported rehearsals of the third edition of Leonard Harper's Creole Follies had started.
      Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, citing New York Telegram and New York Evening Telegram 1924-11-08..
      ..2011
      updated
      2013-09-15
      1924 11 09
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 10
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 11...Birth of Willie Cook, trumpet...
      .djpNew
      added
      2012-10-11
      1924 11 11
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 12
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 13
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 14
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 15
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 16
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 17
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 18
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 19
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 20
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 21
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 22
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 23
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with second edition of "Creole Follies" revue - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27...
      ..2011
      1924 11 24
      Monday
      1924 12 16
      Tuesday
      New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with new revue, "'Stepping High' Creole Revue," produced by Eddie Green - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 09 27

      Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club:

      The Telegram also indicated a 'new orchestra, and ads referred to the 'Hollywood Jazz Orchestra.' As Snowden later insisted to interviewers that he returned to the Washingtonians and recalled a fire, perhaps this was an indication of a Snowden return. Ellington, too, recalled a fire around Christmastime.

      ...
      ..2011
      updated
      2013-09-15
      1924 11 25
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 11 26
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 11 27
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 11 28
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 11 29
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 11 30
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011

      December 1924

      1924 12 01
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 02
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 03
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 04
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 05
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 06
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 07
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 08
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 09
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 10
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 11
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 12
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 13
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 14
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24...
      ..2011
      1924 12 15
      Monday
      New York, N.Y.Hollywood CabaretClub residency with "'Stepping High' Creole Revue" - see 1923 09 01, 1924 09 06 and 1924 11 24
      The Hollywood engagement was ended by a fire at 5 o'clock the next morning. The fire 'wrecked' the club and damaged stores in the building. Water from the firefighters' hoses poured into the subway; the Daily Star reported 2 feet of water delayed the Long Island city bound B.M.T. trains a short while, other papers reported there was no delay.

      This was the second fire at this location during Ellington's career there.

      The Ellington band is not known to have returned to this location until it reopened as Club Kentucky on Feb. 19, 1925
      • "Fire Record," New York Times, 1924-12-17,p.43
      • Daily Star, Queens Borough, New York, N.Y. 1924-12-16 p.4
      • New York Evening Post 1924-12-16, p.11
      • Watertown Daily Times, Watertown, N.Y. 1924-12-16
      • New York Telegraph and Evening Mail 1924-12-16, p.4 and 1924-12-20, p.5
      • New York Evening World 1924-12-16, p.4
      • Steven Lasker
        • book to The Duke Ellington Centennial Edition, RCA Victor CD box set 09026-63386-2, p.23
        • email, Lasker-Palmquist, 2018-08-16
      .DEMS
      .Steiner (DEMS 07,1-14)2011
      Updated
      2014-12-30
      2017-10-17
      2018-08-16
      1924 12 16
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly working the Fox Theater chain, based on an announcement in the Portsmouth Herald, 1925-01-31, saying
      The following concert program is the same one recently featured by this orchestra as a headline vaudeville act all over the Fox circuit in New York state...
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 17
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 18
      Thursday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 19
      Friday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 20
      Saturday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 21
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 22
      Monday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 23
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 24
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 25
      Thursday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 26
      Friday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 27
      Saturday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 28
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 29
      Monday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 30
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1924 12 31
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      Back to Navigation List

      1925


      Date of event Ending date
      (if different)
      City/
      Other place
      Venue Event/People Primary Reference New
      Desor
      reference
      DEMS
      reference
      Other
      references
      Contact
      person
      Date added
      / updated

      January 1925

      1925 00 00...
      Cambridge Companion says "Banjoist Freddie Guy replaces George Francis." in 1925. This appears to be incorrect. Steven Lasker identifies Cambridge Companion's source as Lawrence:

      Per AHLp408: "Mid-April 1925: The band returns to the Hollywood Club, now known as the Kentucky Club; banjoist Freddie Guy replaces George Francis."


      Ken Steiner:

      'The only mention of a “George Francis" is in an advertisement in the February 22, 1924 New York Clipper, in which Elmer Snowden is pictured. Ellington scholar Steven Lasker has done extensive research and has not been able to locate any other reference to George Francis, and believes that George Francis is either a phantom, or was not in the band very long. The June, 1924 issue of International Musician, the musicians' union journal, contiguously listed four new members of Local No.802, New York, NY: “Edward K. Ellington, Fred L. Guy, William Greer, and Charles Irvis." Guy identified the banjoist in the November 1924 recording of "Choo Choo" as himself.'

      • Cambridge Companion, p.xiv
      • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
      ..
      .djpNew
      added
      2015-06-04
      2017-04-26
      c. 1925 01 00.New York, N.Y.Possibly recorded at
      Emerson Recording Laboratories
      206 Fifth Ave.
      Up-to-Date recording session (shown as Blu-Disc in some discographies)
      New Desor shows this as Nov 1924, Lasker has it as Dec. 1924 or Jan. 1925)
      Florence Bristol (vocal) with Duke Ellington and Otto Hardwick

      Recorded:
      • How Come You Do Me Like You Do?
      Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.28, referencing DEMS 04/3-56 pt.5New Desor
      DE2403
      NDCS 6000
      DEMS
      .djp2011
      updated
      2012-11-29
      2015-02-28
      1925 01 01
      Thursday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 02
      Friday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 03
      Saturday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 04
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 05
      Monday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 06
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 07
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 08
      Thursday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 09
      Friday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 10
      Saturday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 11
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 12
      Monday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 13
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 14
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 15
      Thursday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 16
      Friday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 17
      Saturday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 18
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 19
      Monday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 20
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 21
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 22
      Thursday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 23
      Friday
      ...activities not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 24
      Saturday
      .Salem, Mass.College InnPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03Ad, Salem Evening News 1924-01-24..
      .Steiner, email 2013-09-17New
      added 2013-09-17
      1925 01 25
      Sunday
      ...activity not documented

      Possibly playing the Fox theatre circuit - see 1924 12 16
      ...
      ...
      1925 01 26
      Monday
      .Lynn, Mass.Odd Fellows' HallPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03
      (Some itineraries show the band in Haverhill this date, but the Jan. 26 edition of the Haverhill paper said it would appear there on Jan. 28.)
      Ad, Lynn Telegram News 1925-01-26..
      .Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, and email 2013-09-172011
      updated
      2013-09-18
      1925 01 27
      Tuesday
      ...activity not documented
      ...
      .djp.
      1925 01 28
      Wednesday
      .Haverhill, Mass.City HallPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, p.185 citing Haverhill Evening Gazette
      • Ad, Haverhill Evening Gazette, 1925-01-28
      .DEMS
      .2011
      updated
      2013-09-18
      1925 01 29
      Thursday
      .Cambridge, Mass.Elk's BallroomPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03Ads,Boston Post
      • 1925-01-28
      • 1925-01-29 p.18
      .DEMS
      .Steiner (DEMS 07,1-14)Added
      2011
      1925 01 30
      Friday
      .Marblehead, Mass.Abbot HallPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03Review, Marblehead Messenger, 1925-02-06..
      .Steiner email 2013-09-17 New
      added 2013-09-17
      1925 01 31
      Saturday
      .Salem, Mass.College InnOne-nighterEmail, Steiner-Palmquist 2018-08-22 citing Salem Evening News, Jan. 31, 1925..
      .ksNew
      added
      2018-08-23

      February 1925

      1925 02 00... Peripheral event
      In February 1925, Columbia began recording with the new electric recording process licensed from Western Electric. Wikipedia suggests the new "Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequalled on commercial discs during the "78-rpm" era, but one record collector tells me that is preposterous, and I tend to think he's right. The 78-rpm era extended into the 1950s,
      Wikipedia..
      .SL email 2014-08-15
      djp
      New
      added 2014-04-16
      updated 2014-08-17
      1925 02 01
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 02
      Monday
      ... Peripheral event
      The Club Kentucky was legally incorporated.
      New York Times, 1925-02-03 p.35..
      ..New
      added 2013-09-16
      1925 02 02
      Monday
      .Lynn, Mass.Odd Fellow's HallPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03Ad, Boston Post, 1929-01-25 p.18.DEMS
      .Added
      2011
      1925 02 03
      Tuesday
      .Portsmouth, N.H.Freeman's HallWashingtonian Orchestra
      Concert 8-8:45 pm, then a dance.
      On Jan.25, the Portsmouth Herald announced a concert from 8:00 to 8:45pm, followed by a dance

      Those who arrived early received a copy of the record: free phonograph records will be given out early in the evening.
      Concert programme:
      The following concert program is the same one recently featured by this orchestra as a headline vaudeville act all over the Fox Circuit in New York state
      • Choo-Choo
      • Ghost of the Blues
      • Non Sense at All
      • What Became of Sally
      • Tea for Two
      • Raggerty Ann
      • St. Louis Blues
      • Sam
      • Everybody Loves my Baby (sung by whole orchestra)

      "The concert was different from that usually rendered by dance orchestras and greatly pleased the crowd which packed the gallery, while the dance music was of the sort that brought the dancers onto the floor at the first strain of the music, eager to enjoy every bit of each number."

      • Boston Post, Ad, 1929-01-25 p.18
      • Portsmouth Herald
        • Ad 1925-01-28
        • Preview 1925-01-25 p.8
        • 1925-01-31 p.8
        • "Dancers To-Nite," 1925-02-03 p.10
        • Review, "Dancers Pleased with Orchestra," 1925-02-04, p.9
      .DEMS
      .Steiner (DEMS 07,1-14)
      Agust¡n Perez Gasco Apr 2011
      djp 2012-07-27
      2011
      updated
      2012-07-27
      2013-09-16
      2017-10-17
      1925 02 04
      Wednesday
      .Fall River, Mass.CasinoPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03

      Note Variety of this date says Duke Ellington and his Washingtonians are at City Hall, Haverhill, Mass., taking the place of Mal Hallett and his orchestra
      • Boston Post ad 1929-01-25 p.18
      • Variety 1925-02-04 p.37
      .DEMS
      .djp + KS(DEMS 07,1-14)2011
      updated
      2014-05-12
      1925 02 05
      Thursday
      .Taunton, Mass.RoselandPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03Boston Post ad 1929-01-25 p.18.DEMS
      .Added
      2011
      1925 02 06
      Friday
      .Haverhill, Mass.City HallPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03
      Variety reported Ellington was replacing Mal Hallett and His Orchestra this night
      A 1925-02-05 Haverhill Evening Gazette article (also cited by Tucker) and a brief 1925-02-04 article in Variety may suggest other dates in Haverhill, or simply refer to the Feb. 6 engagement. At some point the Washingtonians headed back to New York to prepare for a new show.
      • Boston Post ad 1929-01-25 p.18
      • Variety 1925-02-04, p.37
      .DEMS
      .Steiner (DEMS 07,1-14);djp2011
      updated
      2013-08-31
      1925 02 07
      Saturday
      .Boston, Mass.Music BoxPossibly a concert followed by a dance, as on 1925 02 03Boston Post ad 1929-01-25 p.18.DEMS
      .Added
      2011
      1925 02 08
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 09
      Monday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 10
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 11
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 12
      Thursday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 13
      Friday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 14
      Saturday
      Valentine's Day
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 15
      Sunday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 16
      Monday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 17
      Tuesday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 18
      Wednesday
      ...activities not documented...
      ...
      1925 02 19.New York, N.Y.Club Kentucky
      203 West 49th St.
      near Broadway
      The Hollywood reopened as Club Kentucky.
      An ad on Feb 18 announced "Kentucky Nights" revue twice nightly, with dancing to the Washingtonians Club Kentucky Orchestra

      Under "Hotels," the Morning Telegraph reported the club was packed on the opening night and over Washington's Birthday.

      A story in the Feb 22 Morning Telegraph referred to "Stepping High, Creole Revue," but the March 1 edition called it "Kentucky Nites."
      Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.5, citing Morning Telegraph
      -1925-02-18
      -1925-02-19, p.21
      -1925-02-25
      -1925-03-01
      -1925-03-08
      Pittsburgh Courier, 1925-05-25, p9s2
      .DEMS
      .Steiner2011
      updated
      2013-08-31
      1925 02 20
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      .. 2011
      1925 02 21
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Midnight radio remote over WFBH
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 02 22
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      .. 2011
      1925 02 23
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      .. 2011
      1925 02 24
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      .. 2011
      1925 02 25
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      .. 2011
      1925 02 26
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Possible first remote broadcast from the club - Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.22, suggests there was a broadcast on WFBH each Thursday and Saturday night at 1:30 or 12:00 midnight.
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 02 27
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      .. 2011
      1925 02 28
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011

      March 1925

      1925 03 001925 05 00New York, N.Y.Bryant Hall
      725-727 Sixth Ave.
      (between 41st and 42nd Sts.)
      In March 1925, a European or Russian impresario visited New York agent / producer Arthur Lyons to propose organizing a show to bring a "spicier" type of jazz to Germany than had been played there by Paul Whiteman's orchestra.

      The impresario's name is variously given as
      • Dr. Leonidow [per Tucker, Williams and Variety 1926-01-20 p.44]
      • Dr. Leonidas [per Variety 1926-05-19 p.26]
      • E.R.Leonigoff [per Variety 1926-06-17 p.40]
      • Dr. Leonidoff [per Variety 1925-07-01 pp.2,9 and 1925-08-19 p.3]
      Steven Lasker:

      ''In the spring of 1925, publisher Jack Robbins commissioned Ellington and Jo. Trent to write songs for "Chocolate Kiddies," a revue conceived, cast and rehearsed in New York but staged in Europe. Sam Wooding and His Orchestra were hired to provide music. One of Wooding's reed players, Garvin Bushell, later recalled to Mark Tucker (who collaborated with Bushell on his "as told to" autobiography "Jazz from the Beginning") that "we rehearsed for a few weeks in New York" ("Jazz from the Beginning," page 54) and that other than writing songs for the show, Ellington "had little direct involvement [...] he simply attended one or two rehearsals" ("Ellington, the Early Years," page 121). The duration of rehearsals was confirmed by Floyd Snelson (Pittsburgh Courier, 1925 05 16, page 10): "'The Chocolate Kiddies' [....] has been in rehearsal several weeks at Bryant Hall."'

      Björn Englund, in Storyville 62:

      'Chocolate Kiddies created something of a sensation in Europe and Russia. This musical (which was never performed in the U.S.) is important for a number of reasons: It introduced Duke Ellington's music, although his name meant nothing to Europeans at that time, of course; it gave Europe its first glimpse of what a real jazz band sounded like (as opposed to the "symphonic" sounds of the Will Marion Cook and Paul Whiteman orchestras, who had toured the Continent in 1919 and 1923 respectively); and finally it created a demand for Negro shows which led directly to the arrival of the equally famous Revue Negre in Paris later that same year...'


      • A farewell party for the company was held May 5 and it embarked for Europe the next day (see 1925 05 05 below)
      • The Amsterdam News 1925-05-06 p.6 reported 43 cast and band members left for Europe May 6 aboard the White Star liner S.S. Arabic. Floyd G. Snelson, however, reported in The Pittsburgh Courier 1925-05-16 p.10 that the entire show had 36 personnel but since some took wives and families, 52 people sailed.
      • The show would play in most of the European capitals and in Russia.
      • The 11-piece orchestra was led by Sam Wooding, and principals included Adelaide Hall, who would later record with Ellington, and Lottie Gee.
      • Miss Gee initially quit the show before it left for Europe, but she changed her mind and caught a later ship. She didn't last long, though, leaving the show for good after its first week in Hamburg, at the end of July or in early August 1925.
      • Adelaide Hall returned to the United States sometime in 1926, apparently before the revue went to Russia.
      • Various reports in the American press indicated the show soon ran into difficulties, ranging from overdue salaries initially and a lack of accommodation, to racism in Germany. By August, salaries were cut.
      • While Williams seems to report the show wasn't named before reaching Germany, it was already referred to by name in the media before leaving the U.S.A.
      • The Pittsburgh Courier 1926-04-10 p.10 reported the show opened for 12 weeks in Russia with what appears to be a much smaller complement, Wooding's orchestra, cast members Greenlee and Drayton, Bobby and Babe Jones, George Stetson, Lottie Gee and George Robison and a chorus of 12.
      • Variety 1926-05-05 p.49 reported Wooding's orchestra was no longer with Chocolate Kiddies; it apparently had to fulfil other commitments in France, but its absence seems to have been temporary.
      • Variety 1926-05-19 p.26 said Dr. Leondidas [sic] sailed back to Europe [from the U.S.A.], having recruited new talent for a second edition of the show.
      • The New York Age 1926-07-31 p.6 reported the revue was stranded in Danzig, with Greenlee and Drayton playing in London while the managers were putting on a new review in Berlin. This is consistent with Björn Englund's Storyville article which has the show breaking up in Danzig after its tour of Russia, which ended in May 1926. These are consistent with Lasker's chronology which has Danzig from June 4 to 11, 1926.
      • Variety 1927-08-24 p.54 reported Wooding and his orchestra returned to the United States in August 1927 after three months in Argentina. Since Williams says the show performed in South America, it seems likely the show ended that month, although Englund says it broke up the previous year in Danzig.
      • Williams concludes the show was profitable, made the producers millionaires and produced hefty royalties for Ellington.
      Further research is beyond the scope of this webpage, since Ellington was not involved in the tour.
      • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, privately published, Appendix B: Chocolate Kiddies, p.86 et subs, citing
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, p.120, p.297 n.3-11
      • Iain Cameron Williams, Underneath a Harlem Moon, The Harlem to ParisYears of Adelaide Hall, Continuum, London and New York, 2002, pp.73-87
      • John Franceschina, Duke Ellington's Music for the Theatre, McFarland & Company, February 2001, pp. 11-15
      ...djpNew
      added
      2016-10-02
      updated
      2016-10-03
      2016-10-05
      1925 03 01
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      .. 2011
      1925 03 02
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 03
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 04
      Wednesday
      .Haverhill, Mass..Tucker mistakenly says Variety reported the band playing this date in Haverhill. I was only able to find a running ad in the March 4 edition, in the Bands and Orchestra list "for Next Week March 9) on p.4, saying Ellington, Duke, City Hall, Haverhill, Mass.M. Tucker, Early Years, n.11, p.300..
      .Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p.32New
      added 2014-03-30
      1925 03 05
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 06
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 07
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 00.New York, N.Y.Lincoln Theatre
      58 W.135th St.

      NOW PLAYING
      An All Star Bill Of
      Headline Features
      Miss Gertrude
      Saunders
      Duke Ellington
      And The Evelglades Orchestra
      Brown & McGraw
      Fast Steppers
      Wilson Giles and
      Their Midget
      Presented Exclusively at the LINCOLN THEATRE


      Still working nightly at the Kentucky Club, Duke Ellington and the Everglades Orchestra appeared in a vaudeville show with 5 other acts.
      This may not have been a continuing engagement - Ellington is named in the ad in the New York Age on March 7, but he is not mentioned in the Lincoln ads in the February 21 or 28, nor the March 14, 21 or 28, editions.

      These do refer to vaudeville, but don't name the acts:
      • April 4, 11, 18, 25
      • May 2, 9, 23, 28
      • June 6, 13, 20, 27
      • July 4, 11, 18, 25
      • August 1, 8, 15, 22, 29
      • September 5, 12 19 26
      • October 3, 10, 17, (24 not seen), 31
      • November 7, 14, 21, 28
      • December 3, 19 or 26.
      'Duke Ellington's Washingtons Orchestra' is advertised in the May 16 ad and 'Duke Ellington's Washingtonians The Famous Club Kentucky Band' is advertised in the December 12 edition.
      Ads,
      • New York Amsterdam News, 1925-03-04 p.6
      • New York Age
        • 1925-03-07, p.6
        • 1925-05-16, p.6
        • 1925-12-12, p6
      .
      M. Tucker, Early Years, p.111Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club & djp2011
      updated
      2013-02-25
      2014-03-29
      1925 03 08
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 09
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 10
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 11
      Wednesday
      .Haverhill, Mass.City HallTucker mistakenly says Variety reported the band playing this date in Haverhill. I was only able to find a running ad in the March 4 edition, in the Bands and Orchestra list "for Next Week (March 16)" on p.46, saying Ellington, Duke, City Hall, Haverhill, Mass., which is not evidence of a performance.
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, note 11, p.300
      • Variety 1925-03-11 p.46
      ..
      .Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p32New
      added
      2014-03-30
      updated
      2017-10-17
      1925 03 12
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 13
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 14
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 15
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 16
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 17
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 18
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club Kentucky(all-white revue!)
      Nightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      ...
      ..Added
      2011
      1925 03 19
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 20
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 21
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 22
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 23
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 24
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 25
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      In 1928, The New York Evening Post reported three people were jailed for violating an injunction not to move bar fixtures out of padlocked clubs. The report said "Andrews, according to the Federal record, was connected with the Club Kentucky, padlocked March 25, 1925..."

      This is incorrect; the Club was served notice of an injunction in December 1925, but wasn't padlocked until March 1926.
      New York Evening Post, 1928-09-18..
      .djpNew
      added 2012-12-18
      updated 2014-03-29
      1925 03 26
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 27
      Friday
      .Kansas City, Mo..Birth of Harold Kenneth Ashby. He played saxophone and clarinet at an early age and was a protégé of Ben Webster, also from K.C.. He graduated from Lincoln Junior College in 1942 and was in the U.S. Navy from 1943-1945, returning to KC until moving to Chicago in the 1950s. In 1957 he moved to New York to work with, among others, Mercer Ellington. In 1968, Ashby became a permanent member of Ellington band and small groups. He died in New York on June 13, 2003...
      .djpNew
      added
      2015-04-02
      1925 03 27
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Abel Green's review:

      ' Club Kentucky
      New York, March 28
        Probably the "hottest" band this side of the equator is the dance feature at this basement cabaret, formerly the Hollywood. It is Duke Ellington's Washingtonians, a colored combo, that plays "blues" as nobody can. The jazz boys who drop in at the place, which runs well into the morning and past dawn, take much delight in sitting around and drinking in their indigo modulations. Similarly, the patrons are just as apt to sit it out for quite a spell in addition as not.
        The show itself is headed by Bert Lewis, who sings rag numbers in telling style and clowns all over the place to his and the mob's delight. With him are the Crane Sisters, harmony songsters; Jessie Alcova, rag vocalist; Myrtle Bonnie, prima, and Doris Jackson, "Charleston" specialist. Doris is the sister and image of Bee Jackson at the Club Richman, and it's a toss up between the two as to their "Charleston" proficiency.
        The informality of the place and the free-for-all funning is the feature of the works. Lewis carries the idea through with a vengence.'

      Variety
      1925-04-01 p.44
      ..
      .sl/djp.2011
      updated
      2017-10-17
      1925 03 28
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 03 29
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 30
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 03 31
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011

      April 1925

      1925 04 00...PERSONNEL CHANGE
      Jas. R. ("Prince") Robinson, clarinet and tenor sax, born 1902, joins the band.
      New Desor vol.2..
      .djpNew
      added 2012-10-11
      1925 04 001925 05 00..Unconfirmed.

      "Everybodys [sic] Records recording session"
      Bert Lewis with Piano Accompaniment


      Titles recorded:
      • Don't Bring Lulu
      • It's Time to Keep Away From You
      Steven Lasker:

      'A "comedy" vocal record by "Bert Lewis, the Southern Syncopator with piano accompaniment," recorded acoustically and released in 1925 on the obscure Everybodys label, just may be a Duke Ellington item that's gone undetected by jazz collectors, discographers and reissue compilers ever since...It was recorded in the spring of 1925 when ...Lewis and ...Ellington were both appearing nightly at the Club Kentucky. ... circumstantial evidence indicates Everybodys 1047 was recorded by Lewis in the spring of 1925, probably in April or May, at a time when he was billed as "the Southern Syncopator" and working with only one pianist I'm aware of: Duke Ellington.'

      See Steven's full writeup, including images of the two record labels and two audio files on the VJM Vintage Jazz Mart webpage.
      ..
      .slNew
      added 2014-08-26
      updated 2014-09-30
      1925 04 01
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 02
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 04 03
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 04
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 04 05
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 06
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 07
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 08
      Wednesday
      .Haverhill, Mass.City HallTucker mistakenly says Variety reported the band playing this date in Haverhill. I was only able to find running ads in the Variety edition for this date:
      • p.44 Bands and Orchestras list "Next Week (April 13)":

        Ellington, Duke, City Hall, Haverhill, Mass.

      • p.45:

        WASHINGTONIANS
        Club Kentucky
        Broadway and 49th Street, N.Y.
        Playing Keith-Albee Theatres
        "DUKE" ELLINGTON, Director

      These running advertisements are not evidence of specific appearances.
      M. Tucker, Early Years, n.11, p.300..
      .
      • S. Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p.32
      • Variety 1925-04-08 p.45
      New
      added
      2014-03-30
      updated
      2017-10-17
      1925 04 09
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26

      Variety 1925-04-08 p.45 lists the Washingtonians at Club Kentucky, with "Duke Ellington director" and "Playing Keith-Albee Theatres."
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 04 10
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 11
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      Clipping?.A.Neegaard
      K.Steiner 3/10
      2011
      1925 04 12
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 13
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 14
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 15
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Variety, Leading Orchestras ad column p.40 carried this advertisement:

      WASHINGTONIANS
      Club Kentucky
      Broadway and 49th Street, N.Y.
      Playing Keith-Albee Theatres
      "DUKE" ELLINGTON, Director.

      This is a running ad rather than evidence of a specific appearance
      Variety, 1925-04-15, p.40, ..
      .djpNew
      added 2014-03-30
      1925 04 16
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 04 17
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 18
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 04 19
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 20
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 21
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Variety 1925 04 21 p.37 lists the Washingtonians at Club Kentucky, with "Duke Ellington director" and "Playing Keith-Albee Theatres."
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 04 21
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Lafayette Theatre,
      132nd St. & 7th Ave.
      Harlem
      "Monster Midnight Show"

      Acts included Ethel Waters, Shelton Brooks & Ollie Powers, Three Eddies, Arthur Bryson, Danny Small, Southern Four, Gertrude Saunders and Her Washingtonians, Eddie & Grace Rector, Classy Creole Kids, George Stamper, 3 Harmony Queens, Ethel Williams, Julia Rector, Marie Lucas
      Presumably the Washingtonians fitted this in before or after the Club Kentucky job
      Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.31 quoting an ad in New York Amserdam News 1925-04-08 p.6 and 1925-04-15..
      ..2011
      updated
      2014-03-29
      1925 04 22
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Variety, Leading Orchestras ad, p.37:

      WASHINGTONIANS
      Club Kentucky
      Broadway and 49th Street, N.Y.
      Playing Keith-Albee Theatres
      "DUKE" ELLINGTON, Director.

      This is a running ad rather than evidence of a specific appearance.
      Variety, 1925-04-22, p.40, ..
      .djpNew
      added 2014-03-30
      1925 04 23
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 04 24
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 25
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ..
      ..2011
      1925 04 26
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 27
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 28
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 04 29
      Wednesday
      Ellington's birthday
      .Haverhill, Mass..Nightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Tucker mistakenly says Variety reported the band playing this date in Haverhill. I was only able to find running ads in Variety for this date:
      • p.40 Bands and Orchestras list "Next Week (May 4)":

        Ellington, Duke, City Hall, Haverhill, Mass.

      • p.41, Leading Orchestras:

        WASHINGTONIANS
        Club Kentucky
        Broadway and 49th Street, N.Y.
        "DUKE" ELLINGTON, Director
        OTTO HARDWICK, Sax.
        JAS. R. ROBINSON, Sax
        "BUBBS" MILEY, Trumpet
        CHARLIE IRVIS, Trombone
        FRED GUY, Banjo
        SAMMY GREER,Drums

      Running advertisements are not evidence specific appearances.
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, n.11, p.300
      • Variety 1925-04-29 p.40
      ..
      .Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p32New
      added
      2014-03-30
      updated
      2017-10-17
      1925 04 30
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      Despite showing the band in Haverhill on page 40, on page 41 Variety showed the Washingtonians at the Club Kentucky and named the personnel as Ellington, Hardwick, Jas. R. Robinson, Miley, Irvis, Guy and Greer
      Variety 11925-04-29 p.41.
      ..2011
      updated
      2017-10-17

      May 1925

      1925 05 01
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 02
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 03
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 04
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 05
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Bamville Club
      65 W.129th St.
      Farewell party for the cast of Chocolate Kiddies, who were leaving the next day for Europe. It isn't certain whether or not Ellington attended the party - he composed music for the show, but the Washingtonians may not have had free time from the Club Kentucky.

      Many well known entertainers attended and/or performed, among them Fletcher Henderson, Billie Caine, Florence Mills and Ivie Anderson. Miss Anderson worked at the Cotton Club at the time.
      Franceschina says a European impresario named Leonidow wanted to produce a revue like From Dover Street to Dixie, so he approached that show's producer Arthur S. Lyons and publisher Jack Robbins. Robbins hired Ellington and Jo Trent partly for financial reasons.

      Ellington tells the story:

      One day Joe [sic] Trent came running up to me on Broadway. He had a big proposition and there was urgency in his voice.
      "Tonight we've got to write a show," he said. "Tonight!"
      Being dumb, and not knowing any better, I sat down that evening and wrote a show. ...The next day we played and demonstrated our show for Jack Robbins, who liked it and said he would take it.

      Tucker says Ellington probably wrote four: "With You," "Love Is A Wish For You," "Jim Dandy," and "Jig Walk." "Deacon Jazz" (recorded in 1924) was used as well. He suggests Ellington wrote the four songs in late March or early April, since the show went into rehearsal at the end of April, and he says Ellington only attended one or two rehearsals. The show played Europe for about two years, and by April 1926 was in the Soviet Union. In Leningrad, the revue failed to show up to perform at the House of Arts. The audience came for an 11 p.m. after-theatre performance, and it wasn't until 3 a.m. they were sent home because the company hadn't shown up to perform. Meanwhile, the performers, thinking they had been invited to a banquet, waited in the dining hall of the House of Arts until 3 a.m. before leaving.
      • John Franceschina, Duke Ellington's Music for the Theatre, pp.11-15
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, pp.120-135 & 297
      • Chocolate Kids Miss Meal; Red Audience Disappointed, Universal wirestory datelined Leningrad, Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho, 1926-07-14 p.5
      • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, privately published, Appendix B: Chocolate Kiddies, p.86 et subs.
      • Emails Lasker-Palmquist
        • 2014-08-18
        • 2014-10-22
        • 2014-12-26
        • 2016-02-21
      .DEMS
      .sl/djpAdded
      2011 & 2014
      updated
      2014-03-31
      2014-08-21
      2014-08-30
      2014-10-22
      2014-12-26
      2016-04-18
      1925 05 05
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 06
      Wednesday
      ...Nightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Running ad: Variety, Leading Orchestras:

      WASHINGTONIANS
      Club Kentucky
      Broadway and 49th Street, N.Y.
      "DUKE" ELLINGTON, Director
      OTTO HARDWICK, Sax.
      JAS. R. ROBINSON, Sax
      "BUB" MILEY, Trumpet
      CHARLIE IRVIS, Trombone
      FRED GUY, Banjo
      "SONNY" GREER,Drums

      Running ads are not evidence of specific appearances.
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, n.11, p.300
      • Variety 1925-05-06 p.50
      ..
      .Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p32New
      added
      2014-03-30
      updated
      2018-01-14
      1925 05 07
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 08
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 09
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 10
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 11
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 12
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 13
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln Theatre,
      58 W.135th St.
      "Greatest Entertainment In N.Y."
      The band appeared as Duke Ellington's Washington Orchestra.
      Variety, May 13 1925 p.40, Leading Orchestras:

      WASHINGTONIANS
      Club Kentucky
      Broadway and 49th Street, N.Y.
      "DUKE" ELLINGTON, Director
      OTTO HARDWICK, Sax.
      JAS. R. ROBINSON, Sax
      "BUB" MILEY, Trumpet
      CHARLIE IRVIS, Trombone
      FRED GUY, Banjo
      "SONNY" GREER, Drums

      • Variety, 1925-05-13 p.40
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, p.111
      • Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.32 citing ads in
        • New York Amserdam News 1925-05-13 p.6
        • New York Age 1925-05-16 p.6
      ..
      .Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club & djpupdated
      2011-12-28
      2013-09-02
      2014-03-31
      1925 05 14
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 14
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Gennett recording studios
      9 East 37th St.
      Peripheral event
      Gennett recording session
      The Hotsy Totsy Boys
      Irving Mills, vocal and kazoo; Jimmie McHugh, piano

      Titles recorded:
      • Everything Is Hotsy Totsy Now
      • Charleston Charlie

      Steven Lasker advised Jerry Valburn and Mark Tucker believed Ellington played piano in an Irving Mills recording session for Gennett on June 8.

      Mr. Lasker reviewed the Gennett files. In DEMS 05/1, he dates the session 1925 05 14, but says the files don't name the pianist. In his email 2015-02-27, he says:

      'It is wrong to show this as a Blu-Disc recording session. It had nothing to do with Blu-Disc in 1925. Jerry Valburn revived the label in 1979 absent authority from the original owner(s) [probably Jo. Trent] and issued "Everything is Hotsy-Totsy Now" on a 12" LP on his Blu-Disc label. So the recording had nothing to do with the original Blu-Disc label in 1925 or 1979.

      As for who the pianist might be, Lucille Meyers of Jimmy McHugh Music, who worked for McHugh the last twenty years of his life, told me on 10 March 1994 that McHugh had been a very competent pianist. When I played Everything Is Hotsy Totsy Now for her [over the telephone], she "swore" it had to be McHugh. Musicologist Larry Gushee is of the opinion that the pianist isn't Ellington; Mark Tucker believed it is.'

      (Jimmy McHugh appeared with Mills in Chicago the previous month to demonstrate songs.)
      .DEMS
      ..2011
      updated
      2013-11-29
      2015-02-28
      2016-03-25
      1925 05 15
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 16
      Saturday
      ...Club Kentucky - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 17
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 18
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 19
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 20
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Variety, p.50, Leading Orchestras:

      WASHINGTONIANS
      Club Kentucky
      Broadway and 49th Street, N.Y.
      "DUKE" ELLINGTON, Director

      Variety 1925-05-20..
      .djpNew
      added
      2014-03-30
      updated
      2018-01-14
      1925 05 21
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 22
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 23
      Saturday
      ...Club Kentucky - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      Floyd G. Snelson:

      The Washingtonian Orchestra now at the Club Kentucky (formerly Hollywood) are a great success. "Duke" Ellington, director,; Otto Hardwick, sax; Jas. R. Robinson, sax; Bub Miley, trumpet; Charlie Irvis, trombone; Fred Guy, banjo, and "Sonny" Greer, drums, are the crack musicians.

      Snelson, Theatrical Comment, Pittsburgh Courier 1925-05-23 s.2.p.9..
      ..2011 updated 2014-04-01
      1925 05 24
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 25
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 26
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Variety's Leading Orchestras shows the Washigntonians at Club Kentucky and lists personnel as "Duke" Ellington, Director, Otto Hardwick, Sax, Jas. R. Robinson, Sax., Bub Miley, Trumpet Charlie Irvis, Trombone Fred Guy, Banjo "Sonny" Greer, Drums
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 27
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 27
      Wednesday
      .Haverhill, Mass..M. Tucker, Early Years, mistakenly says Variety reported the band playing this date in Haverhill. I was only able to find a running ad in Variety for this date:
      p.46 BANDS AND ORCHESTRAS list "NEXT WEEK (June 1)":

      Ellington, Duke, City Hall, Haverhill, Mass.

      A running ad is not evidence of a specific gig.
      M. Tucker, Early Years, n.11, p.300..
      .Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p32New
      added 2014-03-30
      1925 05 28
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 29
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 30
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 05 31
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 05 00.New York, N.Y..Sometime before June 1925 Ellington and some Kentucky Club sidemen were filmed briefly in one scene in the background of a silent film called Headlines. A column by J.A. "Billboard" Jackson, distributed to African American newspapers through the A.N.P. news service, reported:

      "Johnnie Hudgins, the Kentucky club band and four girls from the club Alabam have been filmed in the Rue La Paix scene in a feature film called Headlines being produced by the St. Regis Picture Corp."

      The film is held in the Library of Congress and a segment shows the Kentucky Club orchestra and Duke in the background. The film was released on the internet on April 29 2013 - see the film clip and related story in "Duke Ellington's Film Debut" in the posted April 29, 2013 by Erin Allen.
      • Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, pp.32-33, citing
        • News of Interest around New York, Philadelphia Tribune 1925-06-13 p.3
        • Around Harlem with Jackson, Baltimore Afro-American, 1925-06-13 p.5
      • Steiner, "Headlines": Duke Ellington's First Film, Ellington 2014 Conference presentation
      • Library of Congress Blog Duke Ellington's Film Debut
      .DEMS
      (Steiner)
      .KS2011
      updated
      2013-05-02
      2014-03-31
      2014-10-14

      June 1925

      1925 06 01
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 02
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 03
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 04
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 05
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 06
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 07
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 08
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 09
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 10
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 11
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 12
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 13
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 14
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 15
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 16
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 17
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 18
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 19
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 20
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 21
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 22
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 23
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 24
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 25
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 26
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 27
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19

      Scheduled late night broadcast, WFBH - see 1925 02 26
      ...
      ..2011
      1925 06 28
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 29
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011
      1925 06 30
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19...
      ..2011

      July 1925

      1925 07 01
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 02 19
      Not confirmed - since the club remained open this summer (Steiner) and the band was reported there in September, we presume, until shown otherwise, the band continued over the summer, doubling for other occasions. Dutton reported James P. Johnson was said to have led a temporary band at the club, with including Sidney Bechet, for a short period in the summer of 1925, so the itinerary will need to be corrected when/if those dates are determined.
      • Steiner, Wild Throng..., p.24
      • Frank Dutton,Birth of a Band, Storyville 91 magazine, Oct - Nov 80, p.9
      ..
      .djpNew
      added 2014-05-02
      1925 07 02
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 03
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 04
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 05
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 06
      Monday
      1925 07 13New York, N.Y.Lincoln Theatre,
      58 W.135th St.
      Florence Mills biographer Bill Egan:

      "In the immediate aftermath of (Mill's) Palace triumph, Florence took a brief break from performing. The Lincoln Theatre in Harlem took the opportunity to engage Vodery's orchestra along with part of the cast from Florence's show for a week. They featured Alma Smith as lead singer and Johnny Nit as lead dancer. An added attraction, reflecting his increasing popularity in Harlem, was Duke Ellington's band, then resident at the Club Kentucky."


      "The Lincoln this week is going after its nearest competitor, the Lafayette, ... by offering two bands. In addition to the Vodery musicians, there is also a musical unit led by Duke Ellington. This outfit includes the Club Kentucky band ... augmented by players from the Club Alabam band.
        Heading the Kentucky Club band is Jean Starr, blues singer, who is also featured in the Club Alabam show."

      • Bill Egan, Florence Mills, Harlem Jazz Queen, Studies in Jazz 48, The Scarecrow Press Inc., 2004, citing Variety, 1925-07-08, p.47
      • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.25 citing Variety, 1925-07-08 p.47
      • Frank Dutton, Birth of a Band, Storyville 80 magazine, Dec.1978-Jan.1979 p.49
      ..
      .KS2011
      updated

      2013-02-26
      2014-05-02
      1925 07 06
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 07
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln TheatreVariety show - see 1925 07 06...
      ..2011
      1925 07 07
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 08
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln TheatreVariety show - see 1925 07 06...
      ..2011
      1925 07 08
      Wednesday
      .Haverhill, Mass..Tucker mistakenly says Variety reported the band playing this date in Haverhill. I was only able to find a running ad on page 44 of this edition of Variety:Bands and Orchestras list "Next Week (June 1)" [sic]:

      Ellington, Duke, City Hall, Haverhill, Mass.

      It seems unlikely Ellington would be able to play the Lincoln show on the same day as Haverhill, about 230 miles away, and a running ad is not evidence of a specific performance.
      • M. Tucker, Early Years, n.11, p.300
      • Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, p.32
      ..
      .New
      added 2014-03-30
      1925 07 08
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 09
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln TheatreVariety show - see 1925 07 06...
      ..2011
      1925 07 09
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 10
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln TheatreVariety show - see 1925 07 06...
      ..2011
      1925 07 10
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 11
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln TheatreVariety show - see 1925 07 06...
      ..2011
      1925 07 11
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 12
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln TheatreVariety show - see 1925 07 06...
      ..2011
      1925 07 12
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 13
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Lincoln TheatreVariety show - see 1925 07 06

      Possibly the last night of the engagement, but it seems more likely to have ended the previous day. The engagement started on a Monday and was for a week, which would have it ending Sunday, not Monday. If it ended on Monday, it may be in conflict with the Rivoli engagement, although times are not known.
      Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.25 citing Variety, 1925-07-08 p.47..
      ..2011
      updated
      2014-05-02
      1925 07 13
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Rivoli Theater
      Broadway & 49th St.
      Brooklyn Daily Star:

      "As an added feature at the Rivoli tonight ,...present the entire group of entertainers from Club Kentucky, ..."Southern Hospitality" is the name of the spectacular cabaret sketch which includes Bart Lewis as master of ceremonies and the Kentucky's famed jazz band, 'The Washingtonians.' There will be the chorus ensemble, Peggie English and Babe Nasworthy all appearing exactly as they do at the Club Kentucky. This Night Club Revue will augment the Paramount picture "Night Life of New York"..."

      Evening Post:

      " "A night club a night " is Hugo Riesenfeld's slogan at the Rivoli this week. ...Mr.Riesenfeld is bringing the entertainers from various nightclubs to provide the proper atmosphere for the feature picture, "Night Life of New York." The Club Kentucky entertainers and the Everglades Revue have already appeared, and more are scheduled..."

      Variety:

      'The Rivoli is a noisy place this week...
        The Bernie orchestra's musical idea of New York's night life...and the jazz hounds from Club Kentucky, Bert Lewis acting as master of ceremonies, took up a great portion of the program. Both men and women enjoyed Ben Bernie and his retinue of fun-makers.
        They enjoyed the Kentuckians, too, for a while, but some of Mr. Lewis' songs and jests were not received too coridally by the mixed audience...'

      .
      • Daily Star, Brooklyn, N.Y.
        1925-07-13, p12
      • New York Evening Post, New York, N.Y.
        1925-07-15, p.12
      • Variety 1925-07-15 p.8
      ..
      .djpNew
      added
      2012-11-20
      updated
      2012-12-18
      2018-01-14
      1925 07 13
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 14
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 15
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 16
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 17
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 18
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 19
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 20
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 21
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 22
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 23
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 24
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 25
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 26
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 27
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 28
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 29
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 30
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 07 31
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month
      see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01
      ...
      ..2014-05-02

      August 1925

      1925 08 01
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 02
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 03
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 04
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 05
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 06
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 07
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 08
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 09
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 10
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 11
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 12
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 13
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 14
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 15
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 16
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 17
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 18
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 19
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 20
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 21
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 22
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 23
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 24
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 25
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 26
      Wednesday
      .Jamestown, N.Y.Midway ParkUNLIKELY EVENT

      Jamestown Evening Journal:

      'Two speakers have been secured for the picnic to be given at Midway park on Wednesday, Aug. 26, under the auspices of the Chautauqua County Farm and Home Bureaus, the Dairymen's league and Pomona grange. They are E. R. Eastman, editor of the American Agriculturist, New Your city, and F. N. Webb, president of Grange League Federation, of Cortland,N.Y. Besides the speeches, there will be many attractions, among them an auto polo game in the morning and a sport program and a baseball game between Forestville and Sherman in the afternoon. Music during the day will be furnished by the Ellington band.'


      Webmaster's note: Ellington and his band may have played here but it seems unlikely. I have only found one reference to "Ellington band" in the publicity for this picnic, and none for engagements nearby. If this is Duke Ellington and his band from Club Kentucky, it would have had to be taking a break from the Club, since Jamestown is about 400 miles from New York, and it would seem to be unusual to have a hot band from a night club performing at a county picnic. It seems more likely to be an unnamed town band from nearby Ellington, N.Y.
      Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, N.Y.
      1925-08-07 p.21
      ..
      .djpNew
      added
      2018-01-14
      1925 08 26
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 27
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 28
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 29
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 30
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 08 31
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued throughout this month - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02

      September 1925

      1925 09 00...PERSONNEL CHANGE
      It was probably August or early September when Henry "Bass" Edwards, tuba, born 1898 02 22, joined the band. New Desor Vol.II shows he joined in June 1925, but in Vol. I p.1, shows his earliest recording with Duke Ellington's Washingtonians was in September. In DEMS 1997/2-4, Luis Contioch extrapolated the matrix numbers used in various known recordings to conclude the session was probably September 11.

      Steven Lasker:

      'The earliest evidence I've found placing a tuba among the Washingtonians is on their Pathé recordings made circa 1925 09 11. I've found no evidence that the band had a tuba player before then.'


      The Morning Telegraph reported Edwards' arrival in December:

      'Ellington Adds to Band
        An addition, in the person of Henry Edwards, has been made to Duke Ellington's Club Kentucky Orchestra. The newcomer hails from Atlantic City, where he was a member of the paradise Band. The present personnel of Ellington's Orchstra is Sammy [sic] Greer, Otto Hardwick, Fred Guy, Bub Miley and Charles Irvis.'

      • New Desor vol.2
      • Email, Lasker-Palmquist/Steiner 2015-09-10
      • The Morning Telegraph, New York, N.Y. 1925-12-13 p.7
        courtesy Ralph Wondraschuck
      .DEMS
      97/2-4
      .djpNew
      added 2012-10-11
      2015-09-10
      1925 09 01
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 09 02
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 09 03
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 09 04
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 09 05
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 09 06
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 09 07
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      ..2014-05-02
      1925 09 08
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue presumed to have continued until the official fall season opening on Sept. 9 - see 1925 02 19 & 1925 07 01...
      .djp2014-05-02
      1925 09 09
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue, with Bert Lewis.

      The Club Kentucky opened its fall season, although Variety, Sept. 2, reported Lewis was doubling in metropolitan vaudeville houses and the Club Kentucky "where he reopened this week."
      ...
      .Steiner, Wild Throng2011
      updated
      2014-05-02
      1925 09 10
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 11
      Friday
      (estimated date)
      .New York, N.Y.East 53rd St Studios
      150 E. 53rd St.
      Pathé recording session c. Sept. 11. The exact date of the session is unknown; see DEMS 97/1-8 to learn the methodology Mr. Lasker used to estimate this date and DEMS 97/2-4 to see how Luis Contijoch achieved the same result using a different method.
      Duke Ellington's Washingtonians*
      Pike Davis, Irvis, Robinson, Hardwick, Ellington, Guy, Bass Edwards

      Titles recorded:
      • I'm Gonna Hang Around My Sugar
      • Trombone Blues
      These recordings were issued on the Perfect label. *New Desor shows The Washingtonians, but the labels say Duke Ellington's Washingtonians.

      Ellington's Pathé sessions of Sep25 and Mar26 were originally recorded on large cylinders, approximately five inches in diameter and 13 inches in length, which were then dubbed onto 10-inch 78 r.p.m.'s. The company files for this period no longer survive to give dates. At this time, the company used letter-suffixed takes for masters; dubbings had a suffix number according to the sequence of transfer attempts. Thus, the following masters originally bore letter, not number, suffixes: n106250-, n106251-, 106729- and 106730-, with the "n" prefix indicating a "needlecut," or lateral recording as opposed to a vertical one.
      New Desor
      DE2501
      DEMS
      .Steven Lasker email 2014-08-15
      Luis Contijoch in DEMS
      djp
      2011
      updated
      2012-11-25
      2014-08-17
      2014-08-26
      2014-09-01
      2017-01-25
      1925 09 11
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 12
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 13
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 14
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 15
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 16
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue
      Variety:

      Duke Ellington's Band and Entertainers, one of the few Negro orchestras, carrying singers as well as musicians, is located at the Club Kentucky, 49th street, off Broadway.


      Variety:

      The Club Kentucky on West 49th Street presents somewhat of an international aspect with its Dixie atmosphere, Chinese menu, cosmopolitan New York patronage and Oriental dances. ...
      ...the floor show presented at the Kentucky during the summer attains a consistently high average of entertainment. Bobby Burns Berman (B.B.B.), whose reputation as "the Human Broadcasting Station" is well-established in the cabarets of New York and Atlantic City, acts as chief entertainer and master of ceremonies. B.B.B. Has developed a smooth line ... He also sings a "hot" number convincingly and does a nimble and strenuous Charleston...

      Julia Garrity is the chief woman principal, selling a trio of pop numbers in the manner that won her fame in vaudeville and cabarets. Her voice, however, is a bit loud for a room with such a low ceiling, and a bit of soft pedaling might be effective. Hasel Godrew, the shapely oriental dancer remembered from "I'll Say She Is," scores soundly with her specialty, the real optical feast of the show. The other three girls; Jean Gaynor, Billy Stout and Gladys Sloane, are all talented singers or dancers. Miss Gaynor sang Jimmie Wafer's "Will You Love Me In December?" the old-timer losing nothing by comparison with most of the present-day ballads.

      Duke Ellington's Orchestra of six pieces is still the musical attraction and in addition to the specialties it offers in the entertainment line ranks as one of the best "hot" colored combinations in town.

      Business on a warm night early last week was surprisingly good.

      Variety 1925-09-16 pp.,43, 45 ..
      ..2014
      updated
      2018-01-15
      1925 09 17
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 18
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 19
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 20
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 21
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 22
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue

      Remote midnight to 12:45 am WHN broadcast, "Club Kentucky Orchestra"
      ...
      ..2014
      1925 09 23
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 24
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 25...Pathé / Perfect Session
      Pathe/Perfect session false date, see 1925 09 11 (estimated date)...?
      ..DEMS
      .credit Steven Lasker as all 09,2-4entriesAdded
      2011
      updated
      2016-04-15
      1925 09 25
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 26
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 27
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 28
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 09 29
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue

      Remote midnight to 12:45 am WHN broadcast, "Club Kentucky Orchestra"
      ...
      ..2014
      1925 09 30
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Cinderella Dancing
      B'Way at 48th
      Tonight and Every Wed.
      REVUE NIGHT
      The entire show of a different
      Broadway cabaret weekly

      Starting TONIGHT with
      CLUB KENTUCKY
      (Broadway at 49th St)
      featuring
      Bert Lewis and His Gang
      Sally Fields Julia Garity

      and the
      Washingtonian Band
      in addition to
      2 - Famous Orchestras - 2
      Cinderella        
      Dancing
      B'way
      at
      48th

      No Increase in Prices
      No Extra Charge for Dancing
      Daily News, New York, N.Y.
      1925-09-30 p.31
      ..
      .djpNew
      added
      2018-08-03
      1925 09 30
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue

      Variety:

      The new show at the Club Kentucky, New York, has Bert Lewis back as chief funster. Julia Geraty, Ina Hayward, Olive Neral, Jean Palmer and Pearl Howell from "Artists and Models" are in the show, with the Duke Ellington (colored) band the dance feature.

      Variety 1925-09-30, p.47..
      .djpNew
      added 2014-03-31

      October 1925

      1925 10 01
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 02
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 03
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 04
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 05
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 06
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue

      WHN remote broadcast, midnight to 12:30 or 12:45 am, "Club Kentucky Revue"
      ...
      ..2014
      1925 10 07
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 08
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 09
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 10
      Saturday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 11
      Sunday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 12
      Monday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 13
      Tuesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue

      WHN remote broadcast, midnight to 12:45 am, "Club Kentucky Revue"
      ...
      ..2014
      1925 10 14
      Wednesday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue

      Variety, 1925-10-14 p.46, confirmed Duke Ellington's Washingtonians were playing the club.
      ...
      ..added
      2014
      1925 10 15
      Thursday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      1925 10 16
      Friday
      .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
      ..2014
      Circa
      1925 10 00
      .Baltimore, Md.Regent TheaterAt some time in October, a revue written by Jo. Trent and Duke Ellington played at the Regent Theater. It may have been renamed for its second week.

      Steven Lasker in DEMS 04/3-57, "Part One: Duke Ellington and Jo. Trent:"
      'Trent and Ellington wrote one show together besides "Chocolate Kiddies": According to the Baltimore Afro-American (17oct25, p4),
      "Jo [sic] Trent and Duke Ellington are responsible for the tunes and arrangements in Flournoy Miller's 'Backbiters' at the Regent this week. The former has gone far in musical accomplishment. He was in charge of the books of the Vincent Lopez Orchestra until that organization went abroad. He received his training principally from the distinguished Will Vodery and is also a protege of Will Marion Cook. He has also done the score for a number of other successes."
      (The Baltimore Afro-American of 24oct25 reported on page five:
      "With slight changes in personnel 'Backbiters' in its record week has undergone a process of attempted revision which changes are like a popular English beverage, just 'arf and 'arf.'")
      No songtitles were reported, alas. '
      Webmaster comment:
      • The October 24 review is almost incomprehensible, but appears to be discussing the same show under a new name, "Cheating Time."
      • While the Baltimore Afro-American was usually dated Saturday, I believe it hit the streets as early as Tuesday. As a result, it is difficult to determine when Backbiters played.
      • The October 17 edition carried the story about "Backbiters", but the Regent Theater ad on the next page included "Cheating Time" instead. Cheating Time is discussed in the October 24 article, and neither Backbiters or Cheating Time were included in the Regent ad in that edition.
    • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, pp.94-95
    • The Afro-American, Baltimore, Md.:
      • .DEMS
        04/3-57
        .sl email 2016-09-16New
        added
        2016-09-19
        1925 10 17
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
        ..2014
        1925 10 18
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
        ..2014
        1925 10 19
        Monday
        1925 10 24
        Saturday
        New York, N.Y.Loew's State Theater
        Broadway at 45th
        Variety:

        FLOOR SHOW AT STATE
        The floor show at the Club Kentucky has been booked into Loew's State, New York, as the topliner of next week's bill (Oct. 19). The act will have the entire revue cast and Duke Ellington's band.

        .
        The Billboard:

        'SALLY FIELDS, who was to have appeared with the Club Kentucky act, including most of the entertainers from this popular New York night club, is at Loew's State this week ... Her being out of the Club Kentucky offering, scheduled to appear on the Loew Circuit soon, will not affect its bookings, according to HARRY PEARL. Among those featured in A Night at Club Kentucky, as it will be called, are INA HAYWARD, BERT LEWIS, JULIA GERAHTY, OLIVE VANELL, NADIA, the three JOYCE SISTERS and DUKE ELLINGTON and His Orcheatra. MISS FIELDS, originally among this cast, has been routed for the entire Loew Circuit.'

        • Variety 1925-10-14 p.4
        • The Billboard 1925-10-24 p.18
        ..
        .djp2011
        updated
        2014-03-31
        2018-08-08
        1925 10 19
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue

        WHN remote broadcast, midnight to 12:45 am, "Club Kentucky Revue"
        ...
        ..2014
        1925 10 20
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Loew's State Theater
        Broadway at 45th
        see 1925 10 19...
        ..2011
        1925 10 20
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
        ..2014
        1925 10 21
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Loew's State Theater
        Broadway at 45th
        see 1925 10 19...
        ..2011
        1925 10 21
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
        ..2014
        1925 10 22
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Loew's State Theater
        Broadway at 45th
        see 1925 10 19...
        ..2011
        1925 10 22
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
        ..2014
        1925 10 23
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Loew's State Theater
        Broadway at 45th
        see 1925 10 19...
        ..2011
        1925 10 23
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - this appears to be the end of Ellington's third season at the Club Kentucky. Ellington's orchestra left to start a residency the next night at Club Cameo and was replaced at Club Kentucky by Elmer Snowden - see 1925 10 24 below.Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.25..
        ..2014-05-04
        updated
        1925 10 24
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Cameo
        223 or 288 W.52nd
        This is probably the date of the Ellington orchestra's one and only night at Club Cameo. At some time in late October or in November, Ellington's band quit the Club Kentucky to play at the Cameo Club, and was replaced by Elmer Snowden (Rex Stewart recalled playing in Snowden's band at the Club Kentucky).

        The Sun described the Cameo as "a large dining place frequented by well known Broadway-ites," and the Evening Post described it as "a plush and gilt emporium, which opened its doors only two or three weeks ago, after Sam Paul, the owner, had spent a thick bankroll making it the most elegant place his imagination could conceive."


        Unfortunately, our heroes were fired after just one night. Variety describes the events:

        "For three years Duke Ellington and his Washingtonians were the musical feature at the ... Kentucky Club. Their music created quite a demand, with such popularity that Duke and his band seemed a fixture. Then the Cameo Club, uptown, sought a band. Flattering offers were made to Duke, and the result was he and musicians moved out of their apparent permanent home in cafe. Then came the shock of Duke's life. After one appearance - just one single night, to be exact - the Washingtonians were informed they wouldn't do for the Cameo. Not that their music wasn't good, but it didn't fit the atmosphere, or whatever it was, that comprised the alibi. Meanwhile Elmer Snowden and band were ensconced at the Kentucky and there was no chance of Duke's return. Ethel Waters and Earl Dancer have now staged a big act, comprising 20 persons, and the Ellington band got the job."

      • The Baltimore Afro-American reported Elmer Snowden's band took over at the Club Kentucky when Ellington and the Washingtonians

        "left their former position where they had been playing for three years to accept a preferred engagement at the Cameo Club further up town."



        The Club Cameo job wouldn't have lasted long in any event; in mid-November, the club would be padlocked for six months as an alternative to prosecutors going after waiters for prohibition infractions.
        • The Sun, New York, 1925-11-20, p.1
        • New York Evening Post,1925-11-20,p.1
        • Variety 1925-11-25 p.34
        • M. Tucker, Early Years, pp.136-137
        • Frank Dutton, Birth of a Band,
          • Storyville 80, p.51
          • Storyville 91, pp.9-11
        • Snowden succeeds Ellington at Club Kentucky - Amsterdam News 1925-12-09
        • Email Lasker-Palmquist 2016-02-29 re Stewart in "Boy Meets Horn," p. 85
        • Snowden succeeds Ellington at Club Kentucky - Amsterdam News 1925-12-09
        • Baltimore Afro-American 1925-12-05 p.4
        • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, pp.36-40
        • Igo/Ewing/Pilkington itinerary
        • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, pp.25-26
        • Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1925-11-20, p.1, 4 o'clock edition (re padlocked clubs)
        • The Sun, New York, N.Y., 1925-11-20, p.1 (re padlocked clubs)
        ..
        .djp2014
        Updated
        2016-03-01
        2016-09-26
        2018-07-29
        2018-08-03
        1925 10 24
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Loew's State Theater
        Broadway at 45th
        see 1925 10 19...
        ..2011
        circa
        1925 11 01
        circa
        1925 12 31
        New York, N.Y..

        Overview of late 1925


        • Ellington could not return to Club Kentucky when his band was fired by the Cameo Club because Snowden now had the job.
        • Tucker, citing Variety 1925-11-25 p.42 and Chicago Defender, 1925-12-26:

          "After a brief vaudeville appearance with Ethel Waters and Earl Dancer...they were back at the Kentucky Club late in December."

        • Dutton citing Jazz Journal and Charters & Lundstadt, Jazz: A History of the New York Scene:
          • Band out of Kentucky Club for several weeks, struggled for work
          • Gigs at Cameo (one night!) and Flamingo Clubs, plus a little stage work with an Ethel Waters revue, before getting their old Kentucky Club job back.
        • Dutton, Storyville 91, pp.9-11
          • c.Nov 1925 Engagement at Lido Club
          • Broadcast from Club Kentucky, Nov. 5, 1925, 10.30-11 pm citing New York Times.
          • No longer at Lido Club, New York, citing Baltimore Afro-American 1925-11-21
          • (summarizes the Variety story above)
          • Snowden succeeds Ellington at Club Kentucky - Amsterdam News 1925-12-09
          • New show at Club Kentucky, including...Duke Ellington's Orchestra, citing Variety 1925-12-16 p.51
        • Lasker:
          • The colored band, Duke Ellington's Washingtonians, give forth plenty torrid jazz..., per Abel Green, Variety 1925-10-14 p.46
          • Duke Ellington's band and the entire floor show from the Club Kentucky have been booked into Loew's State Theatre for the week. from Baltimore Afro-American 1925-10-24 p.5
          • ...Duke Ellington's Washingtonians are no longer engaged at the Lido Club....Snowden's Orchestra is still making good at the Hollywood
          • Variety... reported (1925-10-21) that a Club Cameo at 228 W.52nd was 'ordered closed today by Federal writ and padlock proceedings,' the club 'taken' out of action just a few days after its grand opening. This may or may not be the Cameo Club mentioned in the 25Nov25 Variety report.
          • Elmer Snowden ... has...succeeded Duke Ellington's band at the Club Kentucky...Ellington and his Washingtonians ... now... are with Ethel Waters and the Plantation Revue on tour. - Baltimore Afro-American 1925-12-05 p.4
          • If you must stay up until sunrise, we can't think, offhand, of a better place to while away the time than at the Club Kentucky...And now for the band! If anybody can tell us where a hotter aggregation that Duke Ellington and His Club Kentucky Serenaders can be found we'll buy for the mob... -The Billboard 1925-12-05 p.22
          • Per bands and Orchestras - - Routes for Next Week (December 14) Ellington's Washingtonians, Flamingo C., 52nd St. and 7th Ave., N.Y. C. - Variety 1925-12-09 p.46
          • Mr. Lasker summarizes Greer's story in Ulanov about losing the Flamingo Club job after the third night. On the fourth night they were given pink slips and two weeks pay. 'Fortunately, Ulanov noted, 'Leo Bernstein was fresh out of a band at the Kentucky. Hearing of the Ellington crew's plight, he offered them their old job back. They went gladly.'
            Lasker says Greer misdated this as shortly after their 1926 return from Salem.
          • Otto Hardwick ... told the same story but placed it at Ciro's where the band worked in April 1926...
          • Ads for the 'Club Flamingo' appeared in the New York Times from 29Oct25. That first ad announced 'Opens Tonight...Under Club Lido Management...' The resident band isn't identified.... All ads except the first name Gene Fosdick. From all this I gather Ellington's orchestra opened the Flamingo Club on 29Oct25 but were fired after a night or two; since the Flamingo Club was 'under Club Lido management,' the 21Nov25 Baltimore Afro-American report that Ellington's Washingtonians were no longer engaged at the Lido Club could simply be an error in an otherwise accurate report about the loss of the Club Flamingo job by Ellington.
          • Igo/Ewing/Pilkington - Dec. 5, Fats Waller filled in for DE during meal breaks.
          • Steiner:
            • "Third Season: Club Kentucky, 19 Feb25-22Oct25" section at p.25, dates Ellington's absence from the Club Kentucky from Oct. 24 to Nov.22 inclusive: The Washingtonians were reported working during this period at a number of locations: the Lido, Flamingo, and Trocadero clubs; and touring with Ethel Waters.
            • The Fourth Season: Club Kentucky, 23Nov25-21Mar26
              Duke Ellington's Washingtonians Orchestra returned to Club Kentucky. Bert Lewis was still emcee, and Fats Waller was added as his accompanist.

              Lasker shows a Club Kentucky ad that ran from November 23 to January 2 in the New York Telegram which names Duke Ellington's Washingtonians Orchestra.
          • Radio logs continued to show broadcasts of the Club Kentucky Orchestra or the Club Kentucky Revue until the end of the year, but those that were in late October and most of November could just as well be Elmer Snowden instead of Ellington.
          • The New York Age 1925-11-25 has Ethel Waters leading a revue at the Lafayette, New York
          • Variety 1925-12-16 p.49, reports Ethel Waters and the Plantation Revue played the Howard in Washington after its week at the Lafayette
          • The New York Age 1925-12-05: has her revue at the Dunbar in Philadelphia
          • Variety 1925-12-16 p.51 reports The Club Kentucky's new show, headed by Bert Lewis, holdover, as master of ceremonies, includes ...Duke Ellington's Club Kentucky orchestra.
          • Variety 1925-12-09 Bands and Orchestras Routes for the week of Dec. 14 shows Elmer Snowden at Club Bamville.
          • Variety 1925-12-30 p.190 reported Barron Wilkins Exclusive Club opened Dec. 17 with Elmer Snowden and his Demon Syncopaters.
          • Variety 1925-12-30 p.204 carries an ad for Ethel Waters and Earl Dancer in Plantation Revue, with Ralph Jones and his Celebrated Plantation Orchestra(Variety 1925-12-30 p.204 carries an ad for Ethel Waters and Earl Dancer in Plantation Revue, with Ralph Jones and his Celebrated Plantation Orchestra. In the 1926-01-20 edition, p.6, Variety reported Miss Waters left the show and opened a vaudeville act. It said

            'The Waters-Plantation revue rift is said to ahve resulted on the squawk made by Miss Waters on the bookings of the revue, the unit being out four weeks and only working two.'

        ..
        .djp2014
        Updated
        2016-03-01
        2016-09-26
        1925 10 26
        Monday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ..2014
        1925 10 27
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y..Activities not documented

        There was a WHN remote broadcast, midnight to 12:45 am, "Club Kentucky Revue" which seems likely to have been the revue accompanied by Snowden's band.
        ...
        .djp2014
        1925 10 28
        Wednesday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ..2014
        1925 10 29
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Flamingo(Unconfirmed)
        This itinerary lists the Flamingo engagement for three nights based on Ulanov's report of Greer's statement -see 1925 10 24.

        Lasker:

        Ads for the 'Club Flamingo' appeared in the New York Times from 29Oct25. That first ad announced 'Opens Tonight...Under Club Lido Management...' The resident band isn't identified.... All ads except the first name Gene Fosdick. From all this I gather Ellington's orchestra opened the Flamingo Club on 29Oct25 but were fired after a night or two; since the Flamingo Club was 'under Club Lido management,' the 21Nov25 Baltimore Afro-American report that Ellington's Washingtonians were no longer engaged at the Lido Club could simply be an error in an otherwise accurate report about the loss of the Club Flamingo job by Ellington.


        Despite this, Variety's Bands and Orchestras Routes for Next Week (December 14) has

        'Ellington's Washingtonians, Flamingo C. 52nd St. and 7th Ave. N.Y.C. '

        • Steven Lasker, ibid
        • Variety 1925-12-09 p.46
        ..
        .SL, djp2014-05-04
        updated
        2018-08-08
        1925 10 30
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Flamingo(Unconfirmed)

        Night club engagement - see 1925 10 29
        ...
        ..2014-05-04
        1925 10 31
        Saturday
        Halloween
        .New York, N.Y.Club Flamingo(Unconfirmed)

        Night club engagement - see 1925 10 29
        ...
        ..2014-05-04

        November 1925

        1925 11 01
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Flamingo(Unconfirmed)

        Possible last night of this night club engagement - see 1925 10 29
        ...
        ..2014-05-04
        1925 11 02
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Flamingo(Unconfirmed)

        If Greer is to be believed, this would be the night the band showed up at the club, to find another band on the bandstand and so they were fired. - see 1925 10 29
        ...
        ..2014-05-04
        1925 11 03
        Tuesday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 04
        Wednesday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 05
        Thursday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 06
        Friday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 07
        Saturday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 08
        Sunday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 09
        Monday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 10
        Tuesday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 11
        Wednesday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 12
        Thursday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 13
        Friday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 14
        Saturday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 15
        Sunday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 16
        Monday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 17
        Tuesday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 18
        Wednesday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 19
        Thursday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 20
        Friday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 21
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Lido ClubThe 1925-11-21 Baltimore Afro-American said,

        'It is reported that Duke Ellington's Washingtonians are no longer engaged at the Lido Club. The reason was not disclosed. '

        Tucker writes:

        'The Baltimore Afro-American reported November 21 that the Wahsingtonians had just finished an engagement at the Lido Cloub, yet no New York announcements had heralded an opeing there...'


        If Ellington played at the Lido Club, the dates are undocumented. The venue may be the Lido Club at Long Beach, N.Y., on Long Beach Barrier Island, off the south shore of Long Island. In 1925 plans were announced to build a hotel beside the existing Lido Club.
        ..
        .djpNew
        Added 2012-05-07
        updated
        2018-09-12
        1925 11 22
        Sunday
        ...Activities not documented...
        ...
        1925 11 23
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyEllington and the Washingtonians returned to the Club Kentucky to resume their nightclub residency with the revue.
        Variety:

        'The Club Kentucky's new show, headed by Bert Lewis, holdover, as master of ceremonies, includes Gypsy Byrne, male impersonator, Margaret Edwards, Peggy English, Jane Laurence, Bermico [sic] Petkers, Harry Harris and Sid Clark, plus Duke Ellington's Club Kentucky orchestra.'

        • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.26
        • Variety 1925-12-16 p.51
        ..
        .djpadded
        2014-05-04
        updated
        2018-08-08
        1925 11 24
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 11 25
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 11 26
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ..
        1925 11 27
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 11 28
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 11 29
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 11 30
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...

        December 1925

        1925 12 01
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 02
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 03
        Thursday
        ...

        "Three songs from 'Chocolate Kiddies' by Ellington (music) and Jo. Trent (lyrics) and published by Robbins-Engel are deposited at the Copyright Office. Jig Walk was published as sheet music both in American and Germany. Jim Dandy and With You were only published in Germany, on the back page of which are ads (and incipits) for two Ellington-Trent songs, ... Love Is Just A Wish For You... and Skeedely-Um-Bum..."

        Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.38.
        M. Tucker, Early Years, p.126
        djpNew
        added 2012-01-07
        updated 2014-05-05
        1925 12 03
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 04
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 05
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 06
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 07
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 08
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 09
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 10
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 11
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 12.New York, N.Y.Lincoln Theatre
        58 W.135th St.

        'VAUDEVILLE
        NOW PLAYING
        Johnnie Hudgins
        With
        Mildred Hudgins
        And
        Duke Ellingtons
        Washingtonians
        The
        Famous Club
        Kentucky Band '

        The photo play attraction for this week was Night Life of New York.
        ...
        ..Added
        2011
        updated
        2018-07-30
        1925 12 12
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 13
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 14
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 15
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 16
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 17
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 18
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 19
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 20
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 21
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 22
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 23
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 24
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 25
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 26
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 27
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 28
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 29
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 30
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 31
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1925 12 31
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Kentucky Peripheral event
        Club Kentucky is one of ten served with an injunction

        "The most drastic measure in the history of New York City against New Year's Eve Revelry was promulgated today by United States Attorney Emory R.Buckner when he served notice on ten Broadway supper clubs and cabarets that he had secured temporary injunctions against them.

        The injunctions... restrain the clubs and restaurants and their employees from selling or giving away intoxicating liquors until the final hearing of padlock suits which Mr. Buckner has brought against them...

        Some 150 Federal prohibition agents will be making the rounds and many have engaged tables...

        Notwithstanding these discouragements to the more convivial part of the city's population and visitors, there was every indication that the New Year's Eve celebration here would be both noisy and extensive .Reservations to the limit of their capacity have been taken at practically all the nightclubs, hotel dining rooms and restaurants...Fifteen dollars seems to be the prevailing price,except where tickets are bought from speculators. The speculators, seeking to reap a richer profit than they could make from the sale of theater admissions, were reported buying all the seats they could obtain at the more expensive nightclubs and disposing of them at an advance running as high as 100 percent, and more."


        Ken Steiner 2012-11-20 in a message in Duke-LYM:

        "Prohibition itself is an amazing subject and I can't imagine telling Duke's story without it. Prohibition had the ironic effect of creating the very night club scene that provided Duke employment during his early years.

        New York was in the midst of a new wave of Prohibition enforcement. Emory Buckner, a "legal beagle," became District Attorney [recte United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York] in May of 1925, shifted the focus to Times Square clubs, and expedited the prosecution of cases through non-jury courts, injunctions, and padlocks.

        Club Kentucky beat the rap this time, according to Variety (Jan. 6, 1926) "through lack of evidence." Later that year, Buckner was successful in closing Club Kentucky on March 21 for six months."


        Mr. Buckner's testimony before the Senate Subcommittee of the Committee On The Judiciary about the national prohibition law on 1926 04 07 is a fascinating glimpse into the illicit liquor trade in New York, the problems of enforcing the law, the reason for padlocking, the court backlogs, etc.
        ..
        .djpNew
        added 2012-11-20
        dpdated
        2016-03-25



        Back to Navigation List

        1926


        Date of event Ending date
        (if different)
        City/
        Other place
        Venue Event/People Primary Reference New
        Desor
        reference
        DEMS
        reference
        Other
        references
        Contact
        person
        Date added
        / updated
        1926 00 00...LIFE EVENT
        Cambridge Companion says Ellington met Will Marion Cook, who would become his mentor, in 1925, but does not show a source. Steven Lasker identifies the source as Lawrence:

        Per AHL, p407: "Summer 1925: Ellington meets composer/bandleader Will Marion Cook, who becomes a teacher/mentor to the young composer."

        Ellington, in MIMM, wrote about riding with Cook in open taxis and receiving advice, but does not state the year, nor does he say this was when they met. The meeting may have been a renewal of an acquaintance or friendship, rather than a first meeting, since Cook, the father of Ambassador Mercer Cook, was from Washington. Mercer Ellington, born in 1919, wrote

        'When I was born in 1919, the entire family was still in Washington. I was named for Mercer Cook, whom my grandmother thought very handsome.'

        While the National Historic Sites discussion of Will Marion Cook's Manhattan home says he lived there from 1918 until his death, his son, Will Mercer Cook, born in 1903, attended Dunbar High School in Washington and Wikipedia says Cook lived across the street from Ellington. It seems likely that Ellington met the father and his mentor, Will Marion Cook some time before 1920.
        • Cambridge Companion, p.xiv
        • Marva Carter, Swing Along: The Musical Life of Will Marion Cook, Oxford University Press, 2008, prelude.
        • Email, Lasker-Palmquist 2017-03-04
        ..
        .djpNew
        added
        2015-03-20
        2015-05-27
        2017-04-26

        January 1926

        1926 00 00... Peripheral event
        S. Lasker reports the "Membership Book" for American Federation of Musicians Local 802 dated 1926 shows Edward "Duke" Ellington 135 W. 142nd St., Apt. 3 NY NY tel Bradhurst 0313
        ...
        .Steven Lasker email 2014-06-21New)
        added 2014-06-21
        1926 01 01
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23
        Orchestra World:

        'Gene Wentz at Kentucky Club
        At the Kentucky Club, Gene Wentz is presenting the Intimate Revue that is proving an attraction of distinct merit. There are few offerings in New Yokr clubs that can compare with this show.
          Gene Wentz puts on shows that takes [sic] becase he has the natural instinct for successes and has added to this by his experience at other places, such as the Parody Club and the Silver Slipper.
          Harry Harris acts as master of ceremonies and leaves nothing to be desired. The Revue offers Sid Clark, whose club pupularity was established long ago. Betty Carmen is a coloratura soprano who has scored heavily in her New York appearances. Chick Barrymore and her Eight Girls are a revelation in dancing and singing and lack nothing in the essentials of pulchritude.
          Duke Ellington's band furnishes the music and this means high grade melody and rhythm.
          The Kentucky Club and its Intimate Revue is great. Those seeking real entertainment can find it here.'

        Orchestra World, January 1926, p.7, courtesy of Ralph Wondraschek..
        .RWupdated
        2018-09-12.
        1926 01 02
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1926 01 03
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1925 11 23...
        ...
        1926 01 04
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Kentucky"Intimate Revue"

        Nightclub residency with revue
        ...
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 01 05
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 06
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 07
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04
        Variety:

        '...WHN made the usual rounds of the cafes, with Duke Ellington's "hot" aggregation from the Club Kentucky starting the marathon. In between, the usual assortment of song pluggers and indifferent vocalists caused one to tune out promptly, although Ross Fowler and Belle Brooks personally impressed.
          The Thursday night reception was poor and proved once again that too much dependence on radio is a fallacy. That radio is waning in popularity may or may not be strictly so, although there is a falling-off tendency, but the fact remains it has not the same grip on the public as formerly, fulfilling the original prophesy about its being a passing fancy. Regardless of this, climatic conditions such as humidity or pre-snow thaw are a severe handicap, and for this season radio will never keep them indoors entirely...

        Abel.'

        Variety, 1926-01-13 p.14..
        .djpupdated
        2018-08-04
        1926 01 08
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 09
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 10
        Sunday
        evening
        .New York, N.Y.Ambassador Theatre
        West 49th St. west of Broadway
        Fundraising recital cum variety show

        "For the benefit of establishing a proposed Negro Art School, Abbie Mitchell appeared at the Ambassador Theatre, West 49th street Sunday night in a program of Spirituals, Jubilee songs and syncopated numbers. The attendance was small but appreciative, although more Spirituals were expected than were given.

        "Miss Mitchell was supported by Tom Fletcher, famous comedian, Hann's Cotton Club Quartet; the Dixie Jubilee singers and Duke Ellington's Washingtonians, a jazz band of eight pieces.

        "In the first part of the program Miss Mitchell sang a group of songs, including Lawrence Brown's 'Sometimes I feel like a motherless child,' and Harry Burleigh's arrangement of "Little David, play on your harp.' For an encore she sang Will Marion Cooks's 'Mammy.'

        "In Part Two of the program she sang Mr. Cook's composition, entitled 'Exhortation,' and Paul Lawrence Dunbar's poem, "Li'l Gal,; which was set to music by J. Roasamond Johnson. Mr Cook was her accompanist.

        "Ellington's band played a jazz number after each vocal selection in part one of the program, opening the evening concert with 'Swanee Butterfly' and concluding the first half with Mr. Ellington's own composition, 'The Jig Walker.'..."

        This review was published Jan.16; personnel other than the Washingtonians are named in the story in the Jan. 9 edition.
        Cook was Ms Mitchell's husband, and Dunbar was Cook's songwriting partner.
        New York Age
        • "Will Marion Cook To Present Negro Music," 1926-01-09, p.7
        • "Will Marion Cook Gives Jazz Concert At Ambassador Theatre," 1926-01-16, p.3
        ..
        .djpNew
        added 2013-12-31
        1926 01 11
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 12
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 13
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 14
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 15
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 16
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 17
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 18
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 19
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 20
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 21
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 22
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 23
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 24
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 25
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 26
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 27
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 28
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 29
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 30
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 01 31
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...

        February 1926

        1926 02 01
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 02
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 03
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 04
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 05
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 06
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 07
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 08
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 09
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 10
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 11
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 12
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 13
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 14
        Sunday
        Valentine's Day
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 15
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 16
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 17
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 18
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 19
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 01 04...
        ...
        1926 02 20
        Saturday
        ..Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue...
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 02 21
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 20...
        ...
        1926 02 22
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 20...
        ...
        1926 02 23
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 20...
        ...
        1926 02 24
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 20...
        ...
        1926 02 25
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 20...
        ...
        1926 02 26
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Kentucky"All Star Revue"

        Night club residency with revue
        ...
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 02 27
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 02 28
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...

        March 1926

        1926 03 01
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 02
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 03
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 04
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 05
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 06
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 07
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 08
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 09
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 10
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 11
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 12
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 13
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 14
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 15
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 16
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 17
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 18
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26

        ...
        ...
        circa
        1926 03 18
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.East 53rd St. Studio
        150 E. 53rd St.
        Pathé recording session
        Duke Ellington's Washingtonians
        Harry Cooper, Leroy Rutledge, Charlie Irvis, Don Redman, Prince Robinson, Hardwick, Ellington, Guy, Edwards

        Titles recorded:
        • Georgia Grind
        • Parlor Social Stomp

        This session is dated circa March 18 or simply March in some discographies but initially estimated independently by Luis Contijoch and Steven Lasker to be March 19.
        Lasker 2017-01-24:

        'Any additional "exact" Pathe/Perfect and Cameo/Lincoln/Romeo recording dates are welcomed for their value in estimating dates of other sessions. Contijoch can help by telling us which of the dates he cites can actually be found in Lanin's diary. Unfortunately, many or most of the sessions he mentions - such as the Rosa Henderson/Fats Waller session - won't be found in any of the known surviving diaries (besides Lanin's, diaries were left by Kirkeby, Vic D'loppolito and Sylvester Ahola) and are therefore estimated dates which should be preceded by "circa" and not used as fixed points from which to interpolate dates of other sessions. Researcher James Parten comments that my original piece omitted a relevant Pathe/Perfect session for which the exact recording date is known from Sylvester Ahola's diary: 29Febl926 (mxs. 106653/53 by Paul Specht as "Consolidated Club Orchestra"). Knowledge of this date leads me to revise my date estimate for Ellington's Georgia Grind session from 19Mar26 to c 18Mar26 (a Wednesday).'

        New Desor
        DE2601
        DEMS
        ..2011
        updated

        2013-11-29
        2014-08-30
        2017-01-25
        1926 03 19
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 20
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 02 26...
        ...
        1926 03 21
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyClub closed
        ("padlocked" for serving liquor during prohibition)
        ..DEMS
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 03 22
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 03 23
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 03 24
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 03 25
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 03 26
        Friday
        ...activities not documented
        (Some sources show this as the date of the March 30 Pathé/Perfect Session)
        ...
        ..2011
        updated
        2013-11-29
        1926 03 27
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 03 28
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 03 29
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 03 30
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.East 37th St. Offices
        9 East 37th St.
        Gennett recording session
        Titles recorded:
        • (You've Got Those) "Wanna Go Back Again" Blues (Gennett 3291, Buddy 8010 and Champion 15105A)
        • If You Can't Hold The Man You Love (Gennett 3291 and Buddy 8010)
        Ulanov says four sides were recorded but two were never issued and the other two

        'disappeared so fast from the market that nobody seems to have a copy of this first record of Ellington's.'

        From his discography, he may have meant the unissued sides were Jig Walk and Alabamy Bound, but there is no evidence they were made. Steven Lasker writes:

        'According to Delaunay's Hot Discography (1938), Bob Thiele's Ellington discography printed in Jazz [magazine] nos. 5/6 (1943) and the discography in Ulanov, the earliest recordings by "ELLINGTON WASHINGTONIANS (1926)" were Jig Walk and Alabamy Bound, for which no issue number is cited.
          The same personnel (including Jimmy Harrison, Don Redman and George Thomas) is shown for Ellington's Gennett 3291. No documentation of Jig Walk or Alabamy Bound is found in any surviving record company archive, and no test pressing has ever been reported. In the absence of tangible evidence, the claim should be treated as unsubstantiated and probably false.'


        Duke Ellington and His Orchestra
        • Ellington is quoted on the sleeve of the LP Don Redman: Master of the Big Band (RCA Victor LPV-520) as saying the date called for 10 musicians when the Kentucky Club band numbered six.
        • This is consistent with Steven Lasker's personnel list for this session:
          1. Harry Cooper
          2. Leroy Rutledge
          3. Charlie Irvis
          4. Don Redman
          1. Prince Robinson
          2. Otto Hardwick
          3. Duke Ellington
          1. Fred Guy
          2. Bass Edwards
          3. Sonny Greer
          Lasker has Greer on drums, vocal and train whistle, and says Greer recalled his vocals many times while listening to these recordings with Brooks Kerr.
        • Aasland lists 12 men, adding George Thomas (reeds,vocal) and Jimmy Harrison (trombone, vocal). This agrees with, and may be based on, Ulanov, p.52.
        • Ulanov says Cooper, Harrison, Redman, Thomas and Robinson were added for this date, but at p.279, only lists 9 men:
          1. Miley
          2. Charlie Johnson
          3. Irvis
          1. Hardwick
          2. Robinson
          3. Ellington
          1. Guy
          2. Edwards
          3. Greer
        • Jepsen, Bakker and Timner IV have the same as Aasland
        • Timner V has 10, dropping Harrison and Thomas and showing Greer as the vocalist on both records.
        • New Desor agrees with Lasker.

        Lasker quotes Ellington manager Harrison Smith from Storyville 47, p.165:

        'I paid Duke the princely sum of $19 for If You Can't Hold The Man You Love...That was his first Gennett record and the boys had to split the $19 up nine different ways, you know...or six different ways, at least. So in appreciation, I took over Duke's band as its manager.'

        Mr. Lasker advises the Champion 15105 "Phonograph Record Cost and Royalty Record" card showed performers' royalties were 1 penny per side sold.
        New Desor
        DE2602
        DEMS
        .sl, djp2011
        updated

        2014-01-20
        2014-08-30
        2014-09-01
        2015-09-28
        2015-10-01
        2017-01-25
        1926 03 31
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 00 00...PERSONNEL CHANGES
        Charles Irvis, trombone and Henry "Bass" Edwards leave the band in the spring.

        Mack Shaw, tuba, replaces Edwards. New Desor shows Edwards in the March 30, 1926 session and Shaw in the June session.
        New Desor vol.2..
        .djpNew
        added 2012-10-23

        April 1926

        1926 04 01
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 02
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 03
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 04
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 05
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 06
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 07
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 08
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 09
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 10
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 11
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 12
        Monday
        1926 04 26
        Monday
        New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        New "Creole Follies" revue

        From The Washingtonians A Miscellany, pp.46-48:
        '...The 3Mar26 issue of Variety ...reported that the formerly white revue at Ciro's had been replaced by a colored one produced by Leonard L. Harper. A lengthy review of the show, "Creole Follies," noted that two shows were staged nightly with a two dollar cover charge.
            ...The band was led by Leroy Smith... Variety's "Cabaret Bills" list shows "Ciro's Follies" at Ciro's each week through 21Apr26. Leroy Smith's band continued after that but Leonard Harper's revue was replaced...
            Although no print reference from the 1920s has yet been located that places Ellington's orchestra at Ciro's, much anecdotal evidence survives which, coupled with contemporary documentation, suggests that Ellington's band was hired to fill in for Leroy Smith's during the two-week period 12-26Apr26, when "Ciro Club's Creole Follies" also appeared at the Lafayette Theatre in Harlem.
            Since Ciro's was a supper club with entertainment, while the Lafayette Theatre staged revues both day and night, and since Leroy Smith's orchestra couldn't appear both at Ciro's and at the Lafayette at the same time each evening, I suppose it possible that a second orchestra, Ellington's, was hired. It wouldn't be unusual for Harper to turn to Ellington. ...Ellington in "Music is My Mistress" (p. xi) recalled

        'I was rehearsal pianist for Leonard at Connie's Inn while we were working at both Barron's and the Kentucky Club,'

            Harper and Ellington had been close collaborators since Ellington's arrival in New York, and Ellington's band had been without a regular job since ...the Club Kentucky was padlocked.
            Trumpeter Harry Cooper recalled that Ellington's band doubled between Ciro's and a theatre on Seventh Avenue (the Lafayette was on Seventh Avenue at 132nd Steet). From an article, based on an interview with Harry Cooper, that appeared in Jazz Hot (Jan-Feb 1946, pl3) ...[translation]:

        ' During a month away from the Club Kentucky, Ellington enlarged his orchestra for playing at Ciro's Club, which was owned by the singer Harry [Richman], with Leroy Rutledge (t.), Jimmy Harrison (tb), Prince Robinson (ts), Joe Garland (as). They also doubled at a theatre on Seventh Avenue.'

            "Ciro Club's Creole Follies" was the attraction advertised by the Lafayette Theatre in The New York Amsterdam News issues of 7Apr26 (p5) and 14Apr26 (p5)...
            From "Benny Carter: A Life in American Music" (by Morroe Berger, Edward Berger and James Patrick, p60):

        'Carter's invitation to play with Ellington came in April [1926], as the band was enlarged and Harvey Boone's departure created the need for another alto man. Ellington's band was in transition during its long stay at the Kentucky Club. Ellington, busy arranging, composing, playing piano, and changing the band's structure, asked Ellsworth Reynolds, a bassist and violinist, to conduct. Carter, Reynolds says, was in the band at Ciro's on Broadway, along with the regular Ellington sidemen.'

            Berger, Berger and Patrick also report (p66):

        'Stanley Dance... has a note, verified by Ellington, that says Carter and Jimmy Harrison were with the band at Ciro's in 1926 [letter from Dance, December 24, 1978]."
            Per Frank Dutton (Storyville 91, Oct-Nov80, p9):

        'Stanley Dance says Duke told him that Jimmy Harrison and Benny Carter worked with him for a short time at the Ciro Club, and then went back to Charlie Johnson's band.'

            Violinist Ellsworth Reynolds was in the band during the spring of 1926 and again in the fall of 1927 and early winter of 1927-28. He left several recollections of his days with Ellington in the form of an article for Jazz Monthly (Feb67, p5) and unpublished letters, often factually incorrect and even contradictory but nonetheless fascinating, to Frank Driggs (undated), Peter Carr (17Dec76) and Frank Dutton (15Jul78).
            In the last-mentioned letter, Reynolds noted:

        'I joined Duke here in N.Y. 1926 – his 1st attempt to enlarge his band for a stint for the Club Ciro Revue, replacing the 'Le Roy Smith' band. To my knowledge Duke's New England tour was before I joined   either early '26 or 1925 (small band). After the Club Ciro date, we went to the Plantation Club on B'way [Broadway] with the Leonard Harper Revue 'Messin' Around' with [a] Maceo Pinkard musical score.'

            In his letter to Peter Carr, Reynolds added that Ellington played at Ciro's for about three weeks. Reynolds recalled the personnel that played Ciro's both in his 1967 article in Jazz Monthly and in his letter to Driggs. In Jazz Monthly, Reynolds lists the trumpeters as Miley, Harry Cooper and Cliff Brazzington; in his letter to Driggs, Reynolds mentions Miley and Charlie Johnson while Brazzington is shown with the band in the fall of 1927 only... Nanton (but not Irvis or Harrison) is listed on trombone in both accounts.
            In Jazz Monthly, Reynolds lists the reed section at Ciro's as Hardwick, Benny Carter and Edgar Sampson, altos; Rudy Jackson, tenor; Harry Carney, baritone. In his letter to Driggs, Reynolds 47mentions Hardwick, Carter and Arville Harris, altos; Prince Robinson, tenor; Carney, baritone. (Reynolds was obviously mistaken about Jackson and Carney, who wouldn't join the band until 1927.)
            Reynolds identified the tubist as Bass Edwards in his letter to Driggs, but as Mack Shaw in Jazz Monthly and in his letter to Peter Carr. The other members of the rhythm section, Ellington, Guy and Greer, are named by Reynolds in both accounts. In neither account does Reynolds mention Rutledge, Harrison or Garland. Reynolds played violin, and recalled that Sampson was also capable of doubling on violin.'
        Steven Lasker
        • The Washingtonians A Miscellanym pp.45-48
        • Email Lasker-Palmquist 2018-09-22
        ..
        ..Added
        2011
        updated
        2018-10-07
        1926 04 13
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 14
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 15
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 16
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 17
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 18
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 19
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 20
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 21
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 22
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 23
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 24
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 25
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 26
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Ciro's or Ciro's Club
        West 56th Street
        and possibly
        Lafayette Theatre
        "Creole Follies" revue - see 1926 04 12...
        ..2011
        1926 04 27
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 28
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 29
        Thursday
        Ellington's birthday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 04 29
        Thursday
        Ellington's birthday
        ... Peripheral event
        Variety of this date listed the orchestra personnel as
        • Duke Ellington, director
        • Bubbs Miley, trumpet
        • Charlie Irvis, trombone
        • Otto Harwick, Jas. R. Robinson, saxes
        • Fred Guy, banjo
        • Sammy Greer, durms
        The same names are listed in the May 6 edition, with Bubbs changed to Bub and Sammy to Sunny.
        Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, pp.31-32.
        .djpNew
        added 2014-03-29
        1926 04 30
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...

        May 1926

        1926 05 01
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 02
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 03
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 04
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 05
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 06
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 07
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 08
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 09
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 10
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 11
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 12
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 13
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 14
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 15
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 16
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 17
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 18
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 19
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 20
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 21
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 22
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 23
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 24
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 05 25
        Tuesday
        1926 07 11
        (Unconfirmed)

        New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe
        Winter Garden Building
        Broadway at 50th
        The Winter Garden theatre was at 1634 Broadway but the cafe's street address might have differed)
        "Messin' Around Revue of 1926" - Revue staged by Leonard Harper, authors Roy Turk and Maceo Pinkard.
        A.H. Lawrence: Duke Ellington and His World, p.45:

        '...Leonard Harper arranged for the band to be part of the show Messin' Around at The Plantation Cafe. With a score by Maceo Pinkard and James P. Johnson, Messin' Around was typical of The Plantation's elaborate productions. Ellington led the band during its featured spot in the show, but the overall musical direction was left in the capable hands of the violinist-conductor, Ellsworth Reynolds.'

        I have quoted this passage for background, but:
        • The revue was advertised in the 1926-06-02 New York Telegram as Messin' Around Revue of 1926, and should not be confused with recordings titled Messin' Around, or with the 1929 Broadway production "Messin' Around."
        • Variety reported the "authors" were Roy Turk and Maceo Pinkard, with no mention of James P.Johnson.
        • Johnson and Perry Bradford are credited with the words (Bradford) and music (Johnson) for the 1929 production.

        Violinist Ellsworth Reynolds as quoted by Dutton:

        '"Duke...didn't need me for his own music, but he didn't like the boredom of rehearsing dancers and acts, especially conducting from a theatre pit....." '

        The opening date is per Ken Steiner's research published in his 2008 Ellington conference paper, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, Duke Ellington and the Washingtonians 1923-27, pp.28-29, in which he reproduced a Morning Telegraph revue published 1927-05-27, consistent with a May 25 opening.

        The show was reviewed in the New York Telegram 1926-05-27 p.16, and Variety, 1926-06-09, carried a review by Abel Green, dated June 3, which was reprinted in the Pittsburgh Courier 1926-06-26.
        This engagement was incorrectly reported to have been after the October 1927 Jazzmania revue in:
        • Frank Dutton: The Birth of a Band, Storyville magazine
        • M. Tucker, Early Years, pp.208-209
        • John Edward Hasse: Beyond Category, The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington p.95
        • John Franceschina: Duke Ellington's Music for the Theater p.205 note 9
        • Alexander Rado: liner notes for Media 7 Masters of Jazz CD series (vol. 3)

        Franceschina and Hasse did not name sources, but Tucker, p.305, n.51, says: "The only source for this is Ellsworth Reynold's scrapbook. See Dutton, "Birth of a Band," Part 1, pp. 52-53; Part 2, p.10." and at p.309: The single most helpful article for this study was a four-part series by Frank Dutton entitled "Birth of a Band" that appeared in the British periodical Storyville from 1979 to 1983."

        Dutton initially dated the Plantation gig as October 1927, evidently based on this letter from Reynolds - the 1927 date appeared in "Birth of a Band" in the December 1978 Storyville magazine. Dutton invited comments on his research, and in the October 1980 issue, corrected the date to "late June 1926."

        The dating clearly puzzled the late Gordon Ewing as he continued the itinerary started by the late Joe Igo - see DEMS 1991-1.

        Barry Ulanov's Ellington biography, published in 1946, says

        "The band was playing at The Plantation then, ... But the Plantation wasn't paying off, so, after a delay on the first week's pay, and no pay at all the second, the Washingtonians left..."

        This appears to be based on a Joe Nanton interview in Metronome in February 1945:

        When Duke came and asked me to play in the band I didn't want to go because he was offering me my friend's job. 'He'll be back next week,' I said. Duke insisted. I promised to join him, but I didn't show up. The following night Duke came by and asked why I didn't come in. This time he waited until I got dressed and he TOOK me with him. He was playing at the Plantation then, at Fiftieth and Broadway. The first week I had to wait two days for my pay and the second week there wasn't any pay. So the place closed and we went to New England....

        Some authors have interpreted this to mean the Washingtonians played only two weeks at the Plantation, but it only says Nanton joined the band while it was playing at the Plantation.

        The show clearly ran more than two weeks, because it was broadcast on June 17 and Variety listed it under Cabaret Bills until July 14.

        This webpage assumes a July 11 closing date simply because that is the last day before the band went to New England. No ads after June 20 have been found at the time of writing although it seems unlikely a show would be advertised after it closed.

        According to Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany,

        "Violinist Ellsworth Reynolds was in the band during the spring of 1926 and again in the fall of 1927 and early winter of 1927-28. He left several recollections of his days with Ellington in the form of an article for Jazz Monthly (Feb 67, p5) and unpublished letters, often factually incorrect and even contradictory but nonetheless fascinating, to Frank Driggs (undated), Peter Carr (17Dec76) and Frank Dutton (15Jul78). In the last-mentioned letter, Reynolds noted: 'I joined Duke here in N.Y. 1926 -- his 1st attempt to enlarge his band for a stint for the Club Ciro Revue. ... After the Club Ciro date, we went to the Plantation Club on B'way....'"

        The June 17 broadcast confirms it was playing in mid-June.

        Pittsburgh Courier 1926-06-19 p.10 says Leonard Harper's 'Messing Around,' the present revue at Plantation, New York City, is declared to be the hottest thing in Gotham, but it seems likely to have ended by 1926-07-10 when the New York Age, 1926-07-10 p.6 said Leonard Harper presents the Ciro Revue at the Lincoln Theatre, New York City.

        Variety's cabaret listings would seem to show the engagement lasted into mid-July.

        The Afro-American, June 12:

        'At Plantation
        NEW YORK - The new revue at the Plantaion is styled the "Messin' Around Revue of 1926". The principals are: Edith Spencer, Leonidas Simmons Bill Ropbinson, and the Four Crackerjacks.'



        Joe Nanton (later nicknamed Tricky Sam) was hired during the engagement.
        Works with similar names:
        • Messin' Around, by Johnny St. Cyr and Charles L. "Doc" Cooke, recorded by Cookie's Gingersnaps 1926-06-22
        • Messin' Around by Jimmy Blythe, recorded by Jimmy Blythe and His Ragamuffins
        • Messin' Around by Joe Candullo and his Everglades Orchestra
        • In 1929, a musical theatre production "Messin' Around," credited to Johnson (as Jimmy Johnson) and Perry Bradford opened on Broadway at the Hudson Theatre on April 22, and played 33 performances.
        • Various newspapers mention a dance by the same name in the mid-1920s.
        • Steven Lasker:
          • The Washingtonians: A Miscellany
          • Email Lasker-Palmquist 2018-10-07
        • Pittsburgh Courier 1926-06-26 p.10 (reprint from Variety)
        • Review dated June 3, in Variety 1926-06-09 p.44
        • Cabaret Bills, Variety
          • 1926-06-16
          • 1926-06-23
          • 1926-06-30
          • 1926-07-07
          • 1926-07-14
        • Frank Dutton: The Birth of a Band, Storyville Magazine 80, Dec. 1978-Jan. 1979 p.54
        • Ken Steiner: Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club pp.28-29, reproducing:
          • Ad, New York Telegram 1926-06-02
          • Review, Morning Telegraph 1926-05-26 p.16
          • Review, Morning Telegraph 1926-06-02
          • Commentary, Morning Telegraph 1926-06-07, p.8
          • Story, Morning Telegraph 1926-06-09, p.8
          • Comment, Morning Telegraph 1926-06-16
          • Morning Telegraph 1926-06-18, p.10
          • Morning Telegraph 1926-06-19, p.5
          • Morning Telegraph 1926-06-20, p.7, s3.
          • Morning Telegraph 1926-06-29
        • Wednesday and Thursday radio log, Hamilton Evening Journal, Hamilton,Oh.,1926-06-16 p.2
        • The Evening News, Harrisburg, Penn. 1926-06-17, p.24
        • Ulanov (ibid.) p.51
        • Inez Cavanaugh: Reminiscing in Tempo, Joe Nanton goes over the great times he had with Duke, Bubber, Freddie Jenkins, Metronome, February 1945
        • Theatrical section, The Afro-American, Baltimore, Md. 1926-06-12 p.5
        .DEMS
        .djp2011
        updated
        2014-01-02
        2018-08-08
        2018-10-07
        1926 05 26
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 05 27
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 05 28
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 05 29
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 05 30
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 05 31
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011

        June 1926

        1926 00 00...PERSONNEL CHANGES
        • Reed player Percy Glascoe was in the band during the summer of 1926
        • New Desor says Prince Robinson left the band in the summer of 1926, but this does not take into account the possibility he was present in recordings as late as March and April of 1927.
        • Joe "Tricky Sam" Nanton, trombone, joined the band during this engagement (see Tucker 'The Duke Ellington Reader' pp 465-66 quoting Metronome 19+45-02-00)
        • Mack Shaw also joined the band during this engagement - see Ulanov, p.53
        • New Desor vol.2
        • Email, Lasker-Palmquist
          • 2015-07-02
          • 2018-04-27
        ..
        .djpNew
        added 2012-10-12
        updated 2013-12-31
        2015-07-03
        2018-04-27
        1926 06 00.Connecticut.Although Ellington and his men are believed to have been playing the Messin' Around Revue of 1926 in early June, Lawrence says:

        'The first week of June, 'Happy' Rhone, a Harlem night club owner, booked the band for a series of one-night stands in Connecticut. ...'

        It isn't clear if Lawrence meant a booking was entered into during the first week of June for an upcoming tour, or if he meant the tour was supposed to be the first week of June. Although I've been unable to find any mention of them in Connecticut in various newspaper archives, it appears Ellington and some of his men did play in Connecticut sometime in the summer of 1926. Alto saxophonist Freddie Skerritt:

        'In 1926, as well, I did a short tour in Connecticut with Duke Ellington. Duke had just finished his job at the Kentucky Club. Happy Rhone, who was the owner of Happy Rhone's, sent the band up there. Otto Hardwick and myself were on altos, Bubber Miley and another musician, whose name I can't recall, were on trumpets, Charlie Irvis on trombone, Harvey Boone on tenor, Sonny Greer on drums and Freddie Guy on banjo/guitar.'

        Peter Carr

        ' When I asked Sonny Greer about this in August 1975, he recalled the short tour in Connecticut and thought the other trumpeter was Leroy Rutledge.'

        • A.H. Lawrence: Duke Ellington and His World, p.45
        • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, privately published, 2006, p.44, quoting Skerritt and Carr from Storyville 66, Aug-Sept 1976, p.215
        • Email Lasker-Palmquist 2014-08-18
        ..
        .djpNew
        added 2014-08-16
        updated 2014-08-30
        1926 06 01
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 02
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 03
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 04
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 05
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 06
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 07
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 08
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.. Peripheral event
        New York Police Commissioner McLaughlin announced he had imposed a 2 a.m. curfew "this morning" to protect "decent people who go to cabarets and night clubs." He is quoted as saying at 2 a.m. the clubs become dangerous to the unsuspecting.

        Club owners argued that closing at 2 a.m. compelled them to shorten their revues, throwing toiling chorus girls out of work.

        By June 18 Mayor Walker introduced a law to extend the curfew to 3 a.m. and by June 19 the Police Commissioner agreed the clubs could stay open until 3 a.m., if patrons were not served after 2:30. On Sept.16, the Eagle reported the 3 a.m. law would come into effect Nov. 1, rather than Oct. 1, and until then, there would be no curfew. The paper said Nov. 1 was the eve of election day, but the mayor had said the election had nothing to do with it. It was because dancing schools licenced to teach minors until 1 a.m. might interpret the 3 a.m. closing as applying to them, so the Board of Estimates amended the curfew law Sept. 15. Apparently three levels of municipal government had to approve the law after hearings before it would become law. Apparently it had passed all hurdles by December, and was to come into effect the morning of January 2, 1927.

        Various news stories cite complaints that the curfew would affect the livelihoods of thousands of waiters and taxi drivers, and politicians called the new law discriminatory, in that didn't apply to hotels with more than 50 rooms, which were opening night clubs on their premises that would be able to stay open all night.
        Brooklyn Daily Eagle
        • 1926-06-08 p.1
        • 1926-06-18 p.1
        • 1926-06-19 p.22
        • 1926-09-16 p.9
        • 1926-11-15 p.3
        • 1926-12-26 p.22
        • 1927-02-24 p.22
        ..
        .djpNew
        added 2014-08-23
        1926 06 08
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 09
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 10
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 11
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 12
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 13
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 14
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 15
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 16
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 17
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25

        WCBS-Broadcast

        9:30 pm (New York Times) or 8:30 PM (out of town radio logs)
        • Wild Throng, p.28, citing New York Times
        • Schenectady Gazette 1926-06-17
        • Hamilton, Ohio, Journal News 1926-06-17
        ..
        ..2011
        updated
        2014-01-02
        1926 06 18
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 19
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25...
        ..2011
        1926 06 20
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe"Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25

        This is the date of the last known advertisement.
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 21
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.East 37th Street offices
        9 East 37th St.
        Gennett recording session
        Duke Ellington & His Washingtonians
        (Memphis Bell Hops on the Challenge label)
        Personnel (per New Desor):
        Miley, Charlie Johnson, Nanton, Harvey Boone, Robinson, Hardwick, Ellington, Guy, Shaw, Greer. New Desor is the first to name Harvey Boone.

        The personnel listed changed from discography to discography - see the summary at DEMS 06/1-29. Steven Lasker: There's an unknown alto, but I've found no evidence to establish he's in fact Harvey Boone.
        Titles recorded:
        • (I'm Just Wild About) Animal Crackers
        • Li'l Farina
        Mercer Ellington:

        'One of the rewards for being good in those days was a box of animal crackers. They were little cookies shaped like the animals in the zoo, and in 1926 he recorded Animal Crackers for Gennett. On the back was Li'l Farina, and Farina was the black child star — about my age — of the Our Gang comedies, which were very popular then. We always went to see them; and when I realized he had written a number with that title, it made quite an impression on me.'

        New Desor
        DE2603
        DEMS
        Timner corrections S.Hoefsmit re 06,1-29, djp2011
        updated

        2013-11-29
        2014-08-30
        2015-04-18
        2017-01-25
        1926 06 21
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        Circa
        1926 06 21
        Monday
        circa
        1926 06 22
        Tuesday
        New York, N.Y.Alhambra Theatre
        125th St. and Seventh Ave.
        After the death of vaudeville comedian George Walker, Noble Sissle and Bill (Bojangles) Robinson organized concerts in St. Louis, New York and Chicago in June 1926 for the benefit of Walker's impoverished elderly mother. The June 12 New York Age report of the benefit organized by Sissle in St. Louis said there would be an eastern campaign in her aid.

        The performers in the midnight New York concert at the Alhambra included Duckett and Love, The Four Chocolate Dandies, Jack Denton, Helen Morgan and Joe Stanley, Benny Leonard, Jack Donahue, Jay C. Flippen, Tom Patricola, Patti Moore, Perry and Covan, Senator Murphy, Mitzi Vernelle, Boy Senter, Linda, Henry and La Pearl (Mildred Dixon), Miller and Lyles, Seymour and Jeanette, Dixie Four, Lucky Sambo, Four Dancing Demons, Lottie Gee, Duke Ellington's Orchestra, The Adelaide Hall show, and the Plantation Revue.

        The date of the New York performance is uncertain: various sources say Monday June 21, Tuesday June 22, Saturday June 26 and Tuesday June 29. June 26 and 29 are ruled out because a financial report by the trustee, published in The Pittsburgh Courier in September, said the New York funds were received June 23.
        • In support of June 21:
          The Vaudeville News and New York Star reported:

          'BILL ROBINSON DOES FINE
          WORK FOR DEAD COMEDIAN'S
          NEEDY MOTHER
            Bill Robinson...arranged the benefit performance for Mrs. Walker, mother of the late George Walker, of Williams and Walker, after he heard of her unfortunate condition at her home in Lawrence, Kansas.
            As soon as definite plans were completed, Robinson brought Mrs. Walker on to New York to be present at the benefit...The show was given at the Alhambra Theatre on Monday evening, June 21, and there was not a single available seat left in the house. The entire program was under the charge of Al Darling, the Alhambra manager, while Ben Roberts acted as Master of Ceremonies during the entire performance.
            Acts appearing on the bill included Jack Donahue, Lucky Sambo, Helen Morgan and Joe Santley, Adelaide Hall, Tom Patricola, Mitzi Verneille, Henry and La Pearl, Jay Flippen, Seymour and Jeannette, Patti Moore, Four Chocolate Dandies, Benny Leonard, Duckett and Love, Senator Murphy, Miller and Lyles, Lottie Gee, Linda, Boyd Senter, Perr and Covan, Four Dancing Demons, Jack Denton, Dixie Four, Duke Ellington's Orchestra, and the show from the Plantation Revue.
            At the finish of the performance Bill Robinson made the announcement that the Keith-Albee Circuit had donated over a thousand dollars to the fund, while the sell-out amounted to more than $2,075.00 and a collection in the house amounted to $311.75.'

        • In support of June 22:
          • The Billboard, 1926-06-19

            'Benefit Show for Mrs. Walker
            New York, June 14–Bill Robinson, the ace tap dancer playing the K-A. Time, will stage a huge benefit show at the Alhambra Theater at midnight of June 22. The proceeds of the performance will go to the mother of the late George Walker. He was a member of the famous team of Williams and Walker, and Mrs. Wa1ker is said to be in dire need of money.
              A strong program of all kinds of acts is being arranged at the Alhambra, which has been donated by the Keith-Albee Circuit. '

          • New York Age 1923-07-03 p.6:

            'Benefit For Late George Walker's Mother a Success
            A benefit for the mother of George Walker of the former team of Williams and Walker was arranged and presented last Tuesday night at the Alhambra Theatre by Bill "Bojangles"
            Mrs. Walker, it is said, has lost all her property and is in dire need of assistance. Many Broadway stars were on the bill. When the show was half over, Bill Robinson introduced Mrs. Walker on the stage. A collection was taken up by passing a basket through the audience and over $300 was realized. Bill announced that the box office took in $2,175 and also $1,000 from Mr. E. F. Albee. After all expenses were paid she reached about $2,500. Another benefit was given in Chicago last Friday night.
              "Bojangles" was personally in charge of the benefit, and arranged for Mrs. Walker's transportation from her home at Lawrence, Kan., accompanied by Robinson's mother-in-law. Returning to Chicago for the benefit in that city., Mr. Robinson provided a Pullman drawing room for her comfort. In addition, he arranged in advance for fees to the various members of the Pullman crew, requesting them to look after her personal needs... '

            (Being a weekly which may have hit the streets before its official publication date, "last Tuesday" would seem to mean June 22.)
          • The Billboard's July 3 review said

            'Robinson's Show Raises S3,000 for Mrs. Walker
            New York, June 26 – More than $3,000 was realized from a benefit performance held at Keith's Alhambra Theater, Harlem, Tuesday night for the mother of George Walker, whose unfortunate straits had been made known by Bill Robinson... Robinson, who arranged for the gala performance, had Mrs. Walker brought here from Kansas and she occupied a box.
              Al Darling, manager of the Alhambra, headed the committee that supervised the program. Benny Roberts was a glib master of ceremonies and kept things on the run thruout [sic] the evening. At the finish of the show Robinson announced that the Keith-Albee Circuit had donated more than $1,000 to the fund for Mrs. Walker. The sellout of the large house brought in $2,075 and a collection in the audience netted $111.75.
              The acts appearing on the long and varied hill included Duskett and Love, the Four Chocolate Dandies, Jack Denton, Helen Morgan and ...Ellington's Orchestra, the Adelaide Hall show and the Plantation Revue.'

        • In support of June 29, Lawrence Daily Journal-World reported the benefit was June 29, and quoted an unnamed New York newspaper:

          'Lawrence friends of the mother of George "Nash" Walker, who achieved great success as a comedian, have received accounts of a benefit given in New York for "Nash" Walker's mother June 29. The account given by one New York newspaper is as follows:
            ...the eighty-five year old mother of George Walker... sat in a box at the Alhambra theatre... Tuesday midnight and witnessed one of the greatest benefit performances ever given in New York.
            The theatre was jammed... '

        • In September, The Pittsburgh Courier printed a financial report the George Walker's Mother Trust Fund established by Noble Sissle. It shows $1,731 received "June 23, 1926 New York (Bill Robinson) $1,731.00. This supports the benefit being either June 21 or June 22, and rules out later dates.
        • In a related story datelined St. Louis, Mo., The New York Age reported Noble Sissle had organized a benefit "last week "for a Mrs. Myers, foster mother of the late George Walker, and said an eastern campaign to aid her was being started by Jesse Shipp, and the Age would accept funds.
        • The Vaudeville News and New York Star, New York, N.Y., 1926-07-02, p.9
        • The New York Age, New York, N.Y.
          • 1926-06-12 p.6
          • 1926-07-03 p.6
        • The Billboard, New York, N.Y.
          • 1926-06-19 p.13
          • 1926-07-03 p.16, cited in
            • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, privately published, p.50
            • Ken Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, privately published, p.29
        • Lawrence Daily Journal-World, Lawrence, Kans., 1926-07-23 p.8
        • The Pittsburgh Courier, Pittsburgh, Penn. 1926-09-25, Second Section
        ..djpAdded 2011
        updated2014-01-20
        2018-08-06
        1926 06 22
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 23
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 24
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 25
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 26
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 27
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 28
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 29
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 06 30
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011

        July 1926

        1926 07 00.New York, N.Y.Kentucky Club Peripheral event
        closed by law
        Vail I..
        ..2011
        1926 07 01
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 02
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 03
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 04
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 05
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 06
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 07
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 08
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 09
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 10
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25
        ...
        ..2011
        1926 07 11
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.The Plantation Cafe(Unconfirmed)

        Possibly still in the "Messing Around" revue - see 1926-05-25

        Based only on this being the day before the band went to New England, I have arbitrarily assumed this to be the last day of the show.

        Nevertheless, Variety's July 14 edition continued to list L. Harper, 4 Crackerjacks, Louise Sims, Flo Puham, Edith Spencer, Anita Riviera and Duke Ellington Bd. at the Plantation in its Cabaret Bills page of current programs in cabarets.
        Variety 1926-07-14 p.45...
        .djp2011
        updated
        2018-08-08
        1926 07 12
        Monday
        1926 09 24..Impresario/songwriter Harrison G. Smith was Ellington's manager in 1926.
        In an undated letter to critic Marshall Stearns, which from its context seems to have been written in the late 1930s, he wrote that after the band finished at the Plantation, the Washingtonians

        'played NE dance tour for Chas. Shribman, NE vaudeville dates for Harry Pearl and then Presentation Theatre dates under this writer's management '

        Smith wrote he booked the band into the new Lincoln Theatre in Washington, D.C. for four weeks beginning Labour Day 1926, preceded by a four week "Stanley Circuit Presentation" tour.

        The Stanley tour played at Stanley's 'Liberty' and 'Scenley' [recte "Schenley"] theatres in Pittsburgh. There was to be a third week at N. Kensington & Homestead, followed by a fourth week at Grafton (W.Va?) & Wheeling, W.Va. but...

        'Miley was a likeable guy but like most real artists, he was as 'nutty as a fruitcake.' ... Miley got 'lonesome for Harlem' and quit 'cold,' the band got panicky and Duke said 'no dice' and the boys headed for NYC...While 'trying' to replace Miley the band opened in the later part of '26 at '7-11 Club' Broadway & 47th, and later went over to 'Kentucky Club'... '


        In an unpublished 1944 article , Smith wrote about booking the band into the Lincoln in Washington for a Labour Day opening, but previously booking the four week tour, beginning with two weeks at the Harry Davis Olympic and Schenley theatres. After the first night, Davis sent a telegram to Smith saying Duke's is the lousiest band that I ever heard. Word reached the Lincoln's general manager, who cancelled the four week booking there.
        Smith retells the story in an interview published in Storyville 47, June-July 1973:

        'We were about to go into Grafton and Wheeling, West Virginia...Bubber Miley cut out! Bubber Miley was a prima donna...he didn't like going on the road, you see. So we had no cornet, or trumpet, whichever it was he played...

        He goes on to say that before Ellington left for Pittsburgh, Smith signed the contract for the Lincoln, but ten minutes later, walking past the Honeymoon Lane club, he saw Ellington was booked to begin there on Labour Day.

        'So, he opened in this "Honeymoon Lane", I think the name was, and stayed there a couple of weeks. Then he moved over to the Club Kentucky and stayed there a couple of weeks. From there he went to the Lincoln Theater in Harlem. About that time Andy Preer, who had the original Cotton Club Orchestra, he died, [c.May 1927] so they were scrambling around for a band, and they got Duke. That's how he got in the Cotton Club. Now if he'd stayed on the road...if he'd been a success on the road, as I'd hoped, he wouldn't have got in the Cotton Club... '

        Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, privately published, p.54, citing:..
        .sl/djp.New
        added 2014-08-31
        updated
        2016-12-04
        1926 07 12
        Monday
        .Waltham, Mass.Nuttings-On-The-Charles
        (a.k.a Nuttings Dance Hall)
        Prospect St. at the Charles River
        The Washingtonians were now a 10 piece band. Their 5 week New England booking began here; based in Salem, they stayed in the New Brunswick Hotel
        • M. Tucker, Early Years, pp.186-187
        • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club
        ..
        ..Added
        2011
        updated 2011-12-27
        1926 07 13
        Tuesday
        .Salem, Mass.Charleshurst Ballroom...
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 14
        Wednesday
        .Gardner, Mass.Arcadia Ballroom

        'Tomorrow Night is the Night
        ARCADIA at Gardner
        DUKE ELLINGTON
        and his Washingtonians
        Broadway's Greatest Colored Orchestra
        The Paul Whiteman of Colored Bands
        10 & ndash; Sensational Musicians – 10
        Dancing 8 to 12 * * * * * * * Admission 75 cents'

        .
        Fitchburg Sentinel, Fitchburg, Mass.
        • 1926-07-12 p.2
        • 1926-07-13 p.2
        • 1926-07-14 p.2
        ..
        ..Added
        2011
        updated
        2018-08-08
        1926 07 15
        Thursday
        .Brockton, Mass.Highland Park....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 16
        Friday
        .Fall River, Mass.Lincoln Park....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 17
        Saturday
        .Worcester, Mass.Mohegan....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 18
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 07 19
        Monday
        .Waltham, Mass.Nuttings-On-The-Charles
        (a.k.a Nuttings Dance Hall)
        Prospect St. at the Charles River
        ....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 20
        Tuesday
        .Salem, Mass.Charleshurst Ballroom....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 21
        Wednesday
        .Revere Beach, Mass.Crescent Gardens....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 22
        Thursday
        .Boston, Mass.Scenic Auditorium
        Berkeley St.
        ....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 23
        Friday
        .Lawrence, Mass.Roseland....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 24
        Saturday
        .Gardner, Mass.Arcadia Ballroom

        'COMING
        SATURDAY NIGHT
        Return Engagement
        Duke Ellington and His
        Washingtonians
        10 – Colored Stars – 10'


        'Tomorrow Night
        Saturday
        Duke
        Ellington
        And His
        Washingtonians
        10 COLORED MEN
        Direct from
        THE PLANTATION
        New York
        DANCING
        8 to 11:45
        Admission 75¢
        Special Bis
        Service'

        Fitchburg Sentinel, Fitchburg, Mass.
        • 1926-07-22 p.2
        • 1926-07-23 p.2
        ..
        ..djpAdded
        2011
        updated
        2018-08-08
        1926 07 25
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 07 26
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 07 27
        Tuesday
        .Lowell, Mass. Commodore Ballroom....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 28
        Wednesday
        .Lawrence, Mass.RoselandDance

        ROSELAND
        Tonight
        "Duke" Ellington
        - AND HIS -
        Famous Orchestra (Colored)
        Hear these artists - this is the Hottest band in America
        Check Dancing -Admission 10˘

        The Lowell Sun, 1926-07-28, p.16..
        ..djp Added
        2011
        updated 2012-08-05
        1926 07 29
        Thursday
        .Cranston, R.I.Oakland Beach....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 07 30
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 07 31
        Saturday
        .Salem, Mass.Charleshurst Ballroom....
        ..Added
        2011

        August 1926

        Circa
        1926 08 00
        .New York, N.Y.. Peripheral event
        • The first recording listed in the chronological secton of Aasland's Wax Works is:
                                                 Unknown date:
          610 JIG WALK (Ellington) Nickelodeon transcription
          Pm 14024 (label:607; wax:610) (V) DE
          "Pm" is Aasland's abbreviation for the Paramount (USA) label.
          "(V)" means "vinylite (or similar) pressing."

          This is a 78 rpm shellac record that was transcribed (dubbed) from a Nickelodeon piano roll of Jig Walk, Paramount 14024, which he mistakenly attributed to Ellington.
        • "Jig Walk" is one of the four pieces Tucker says Ellington and Jo Trent wrote for the Chocolate Kiddies revue (see 1925 05 05). Tucker suggests they were written in March or April since the show went into rehearsal at the end of April, and Ellington only attended one or two rehearsals.
        • Jepsen, vol.1, lists it as:
          DUKE ELLINGTON:
          Piano solo (from a piano roll) 1926
          607 (wax) 610 (label) Jig Walk Para 14027
        • The Library of Congress Sonic Database shows
          Paramount 14024 (78A)
          Title: Jig walk; The mess-around
          ...
          Works:
          Jig walk / Ellington. Performed by Duke Ellington, piano.
          Nickelodeon transcription. 607.
          The mess-around. Performed by Fats Waller, piano. Pianola
          transcription. 608.

          Physical Item:
          Paramount 14024 (78A). 1 sound disc : 78 rpm, mono; 10-inch,
          standard (shellac)...
        • This is not an Ellington recording:
          • The title "Jig Walk" is shown twice in Discography of OKeh Records, 1918-1934 by Laird and Rust, first as a 1922 recording by Sophie Tucker on Ok 4590 (composer credits Creamer and Vodery, not to be confused with the Ellington/Trent piece), then in February 1926 on Ok 40614 side 2.
          • The OKeh Syncopators recorded Jig Walk around Feb.20. The date must be estimated because the original matrix card is missing from the Sony card files and was based on Ross Laird and Brian Rust Discography of OKeh Records, 1918-1934, Praeger, Westport, Conn., 2004, p. 336.
          • The OKeh Syncopators name is usually associated with Harry Reser, not Ellington.
          • More confusion is created by Barry Ulanov in the second (1975) printing of his Duke Ellington biography, which includes a discography showing The Washingtonians recorded Jig Walk and Alabama Bound for Gennett in 1926.
          • Bakker's 1977 discography, pages 19, 33 and 36, session 12, mid-1926, shows Ellington, piano, recorded with a "percussion-device attached to the piano-player."
          • Lambert, pp.5-6:

            'It is impossible to establish with certainty which is, in fact the earliest recorded example of Duke Ellington's music. Quite possibly it is a piano roll he cut of his composition Jig Walk, but the uncertainties in dating player-piano rolls make it impossible to know whether or not this predates the first Ellington disc recordings. Current research suggests that it was done in 1926...The main distinction of this particular piano roll is that it was designed for a player piano with a percussion attachment, and it has been recorded and transcribed to disc with such a device present and working. The percussion bangs and crashes away for the last eight bars of each of the three choruses...There is a recording of it by...the OKeh Syncopators from February 1926, which some authorities believe has Duke himself on piano...'

          • DEMS 1997/2 p.23 explains why Jig Walk was left out of Timner IV. The bulletin includes comments by Jerry Valburn, Ken Rattenbury, and Mark Tucker, and a report that Ellington twice told an interviewer that he had never made piano rolls.
          • DEMS 1998/2 p.23 identifies Jig Walk recordings that were made by Ellington in later years.
          • In DEMS 04/3-23, Matthew Sasaki, Sjef Hoesmit and Roger Boyes survey the recordings and how they have been treated in various discographies, with Sjef reiterating that there is no 1920s recording of it by Ellington.
          • DEMS 05/1-42 has an essay by Roger Boyes about the performance history and origins of Jig Walk.
          • Finally, in DEMS 05/1-26, Steven Lasker reports

            'According to Laurie Wright ("'Fats' in Fact," page 296), Jig Walk on Paramount 14027 (released circa 1945) is dubbed from QRS 3565, a piano roll "released in August 1926 and actually played by J. Lawrence Cook." Piano roll authority Mike Montgomery tells me he used to own Jig Walk on a U.S. Music nickelodeon roll which he believes is probably a reissue of the QRS roll (which he has never heard). Montgomery adds that nickelodeon rolls each normally contain 10 different songs, and that Jig Walk was the only Ellington composition on his U.S. Music roll, which doesn't credit artist(s).'

        • John Franceschina, Duke Ellington's Music for the Theatre, pp.11-15
        • M. Tucker, Early Years, pp.120-135 & 297
        • Chocolate Kids Miss Meal; Red Audience Disappointed, Universal wirestory datelined Leningrad, Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho, 1926-07-14 p.5
        • Steven Lasker, The Washingtonians, A Miscellany, privately published, Appendix B: Chocolate Kiddies, p.86 et subs.
        • Emails Lasker-Palmquist
          • 2014-08-18
          • 2014-10-22
          • 2014-12-26
          • 2016-02-21
          • 2017-06-04
        .DEMS
        .sl/djpAdded
        2011 & 2014
        updated
        2014-03-31
        2014-08-21
        2014-08-30
        2014-10-22
        2014-12-26
        2016-04-18
        1926 08 01
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 02
        Monday
        .Waltham, Mass.Nuttings-On-The-Charles
        (a.k.a Nuttings Dance Hall)
        Prospect St. at the Charles River
        ....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 03
        Tuesday
        .Salem, Mass.Charleshurst Ballroom....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 04
        Wednesday
        .Marshfield, Mass.Fieldston Ballroom
        (Aka Fieldston Ballroom On The Atlantic
        ....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 05
        Thursday
        .Woonsocket, R.I.Miami Ballroom....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 06
        Friday
        .Somerset, Mass.Wilbur's....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 07
        Saturday
        .Worcester, Mass.Mohegan....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 08
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 09
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 10
        Tuesday
        .Salem, Mass.Charleshurst Ballroom....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 11
        Wednesday
        .Marshfield, Mass.Fieldston BallroomOne-nighterEmail, Steiner-Palmquist 2018-08-22 citing Brockton Daily Enterprise, Aug. 9, 1926.)..
        .ksNew
        added
        2018-08-23
        1926 08 12
        Thursday
        .Old Orchard Beach, MainePier Casino
        Ocean Pier

        Ocean Pier
        OLD ORCHARD
        DANCE O'ER THE WAVES
        TO-NIGHT
        Duke Ellington and his Plantation Orchestra
        COUNTRY STORE NIGHT


        Ellington and his orchestra peformed several times at Old Orchard Beach, Maine. Previous itineraries have named the town and venue several different ways, but it seems likely most of these engagements were at the casino-ballroom on the pier, known locally as the Pier Casino. the August 1926 Biddeford Daily Journal ads refer to the venue as "Ocean Pier, OLD ORCHARD."

        The photograph on page 74 of MIMM mistakenly leaves "Old" out of the town name.

        Vintage postcards advertised on eBay don't give specific names for the possible venues. One is captioned The New Pier, Old Orchard, Me., and shows buildings at the shore and ocean ends, with the pier deck open to the elements. The listing suggests this was 1908. Another is an aerial photo showing a covered pier, with the casino/dance room over the water and an amusement complex at the shore end, beside a roller coaster. Yet another appears to be a hand-drawn aerial view, showing a covered pier leading to a building with signage showing "...ION PICTURES," "CASINO" "VAUDEVILLE" and "DANCING" with a rooftop sign over the shore building saying MOVIES and DANCING.
        • Duke Ellington, MIMM p.74 photo
        • Biddeford Daily Journal, Biddeford, Maine
          • 1926-08-10 p.2
          • 1926-08-11 p.8
          • 1926-08-12 p.8
        .DEMS

        .djp2011
        updated
        2014-08-10
        2016-07-16
        2018-08-16
        1926 08 13
        Friday
        .Dedham, Mass.Moseley-On-The-Charles

        Caution - This ballroom still exists - do not access its website, it has a virus as at 2012-08-05
        ....
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 08 14
        Saturday
        .Gardner, Mass.Arcadia Ballroom

        'SATURDAY, AUG. 14
        Duke Ellington
        And His
        WASHINGTOINIANS
        of New York.
        Last Appearance In New
        England.'


        'SATURDAY NIGHT
        Farewell engagement
        of the
        colored stars.
        DUKE
        ELLINGTON
        and His
        New York Orchestra
        The Paul Whiteman of
        Colored Orchestras.
        --------
        Your last opportunity to dance to this famous band.
        Admission 75¢ '

        Fitchburg Sentinel, Fitchburg, Mass.
        • 1926-08-06 p.2
        • 1926-08-13 p.2
        • 1926-08-14 p.2
        ..
        ..Added
        2011
        updated
        2018-08-08
        1926 08 15
        Sunday
        .Leominster, Mass.Rialto TheaterTwo performances, 6:30 and 8:30 p.m.

        'Duke Ellington
        and his original record band.
        Seats – 50¢
        Loge Seats Reserved, 75¢ '

        Fitchburg Sentinel, Fitchburg, Mass.,
        • 1926-08-11 p.16
        • 1926-08-12 p.2
        • 1926-08-13 p.16
        ..
        ..2011
        updated
        2014-08-15
        2018-08-10
        1926 08 16
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 17
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 18
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 19
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 20
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 21
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 22
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 23
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 24
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 25
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 26
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 27
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 28
        Saturday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 29
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 08 30
        Monday
        1926 09 04
        Saturday
        Pittsburgh, Penn.Olympic Theater

        On the Stage
        Duke Ellington's
        9 - Washingtonians - 9


        Pittsburgh Press 1926-08-31:

        "The Show-Off opened yesterday at the Olympic theater for a week's engagement. For a new trend in screen productions, The Show-Off is an apt illustration, with Ford Sterling as the central character...One of the finest musical organizations to come to Pittsburgh is at the Olympic this week. Duke Ellington's Washingtonians proved a hit. A corking comedy, Wife Tamers, featuring Lionel Barrymore and Pathe News were also on the program. An extra film attraction this week of the first annual baby pageant was shown. Harry Hochie and the Olympic Symphonic orchestra pleased with new and entertaining numbers."


        • The Show Off was a film.
        • Variety's "Presentations - Bills" section has the Washingtonians and "Show Off" opening Aug. 29, but the Pittsburgh Press had the show opening Aug. 30 but the ads and review in the Pittsburgh Press make it clear it opened August 30.
          Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Penn.
          • 1926-08-22 p.7
          • 1926-08-28 p.11
          • 1926-08-29 pp.2,4
          • 1926-08-31 pp.25,26
          • 1925-09-02 p.11
        • Steiner: Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.30 citing Pittsburgh Press 1926-08-31,p.25
        • Variety 1926-09-01 p.33
        ..
        .djp2011
        updated
        2013-06-14
        2018-08-10
        1926 08 31
        Tuesday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Olympic TheaterStage show - see 1926 08 30...
        ..2011

        September 1926

        1926 09 01
        Wednesday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Olympic TheaterStage show - see 1926 08 30...
        ..2011
        1926 09 02
        Thursday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Olympic TheaterStage show - see 1926 08 30...
        ..2011
        1926 09 03
        Friday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Olympic TheaterStage show - see 1926 08 30...
        ..2011
        1926 09 04
        Saturday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Olympic TheaterStage show - see 1926 08 30...
        ..2011
        1926 09 05
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 09 06
        Monday
        1926 09 11Pittsburgh, Penn.Schenley Theater"Added attraction - Duke Ellington's Washingtonians, Nine Artists in Elaborate Musical Act - Late Feature of the Broadway Success, 'Plantation'".
        • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.30 citing Pittsburgh Press 1926-09-05, Summer Resorts & Amusement Section, pp. 4,5
        ..
        .KSAdded
        2011
        updated
        2018-11-02
        1926 09 06
        Monday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Schenley TheaterStage show - see 1926 09 06...
        ..2011
        1926 09 07
        Tuesday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Schenley TheaterStage show - see 1926 09 06...
        ..2011
        1926 09 08
        Wednesday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Schenley TheaterStage show - see 1926 09 06...
        ..2011
        1926 09 09
        Thursday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Schenley TheaterStage show - see 1926 09 06...
        ..2011
        1926 09 10
        Friday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Schenley TheaterStage show - see 1926 09 06...
        ..2011
        1926 09 11
        Saturday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Schenley TheaterStage show - see 1926 09 06...
        ..2011
        1926 09 12
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 09 13
        Monday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 09 14
        Tuesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 09 15
        Wednesday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 09 16
        Thursday
        1926 09 18
        Saturday
        Pittsburgh, Penn.Stahl's Homestead Million Dollar TheatreVaudeville
        Ad:

        'THURSDAY - FRIDAY - SATURDAY
        EMIL JANNINGS in "VARIETY"
        ON STAGE - WASHINGTONIANS ORCHESTRA'

        Plug:

        'STAHL – Gloria Swanson in "Fine Manners," ... at the Stahl theater, the first half of this week. On the stage the Rudolph-Vosari opera unit... The last half of the week. Emil Jannings and Lya De Putti are featured in "Variety" an unusual drama. The stage presentation is Duke Ellington's Washingtonians. Comedies, news, cartoons and other novelties are additional screen features.'


        While the Washingtonian's were advertised, they may not have appeared. The exact day they cancelled their tour is unknown.
        The Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Penn. 1926-09-12
        Theatricial & Photoplay Section, p.7
        ..
        .djpNew
        added
        2018-11-30
        1926 09 17
        Friday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Stahl's Homestead Million Dollar TheatreVaudeville - see 1926-09-15...
        .djpNew
        added
        2018-11-30
        1926 09 18
        Saturday
        .Pittsburgh, Penn.Stahl's Homestead Million Dollar TheatreVaudeville - see 1926-09-15...
        .djpNew
        added
        2018-11-30
        1926 09 19
        Sunday
        ...activities not documented

        The band ended its four-week tour prematurely - see Harrison Smith's account at 1926 07 12 above. Nanton, in an interview by Inez Cavenaugh, said the band was booked into Huntington, W.Va. and thinking that was too South, they returned to the Kentucky Club. Smith may not have known this was why the band quit the tour.
        ...
        .djp2014
        updated 2014-08-31
        1926 09 20
        Monday
        1926 09 22
        Wednesday
        East Liverpool, OhioCeramic TheaterCancelled appearance
        Other activities not documented
        Announcement 1:

        "Duke Ellington's Famous Band Coming To Ceramic
        ----
        Ten Musicians Will Appear With Gloria Swanson Picture, Fine Manners," Monday Tuesday and Wednesday.
        ----
        Duke Ellington and his Washingtonians, Broadway's greatest colored orchestra - 10 sensational musicians - who for some time have been making phonograph records, will be the headliner of the vaudeville-motion picture bill at the Ceramic theatre on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday.
          Coming from New York City's Hollywood Cafe, Ellington, who is known as the colored Paul Whiteman, and whose famous plantation orchestra has been featured in broadcasting from WTAB station, will appear at matinee and evening presentations of "Fine Manners," the Paramount picture in which Gloria Swanson is the star.
          This snappy jazz band played on the Great White Way in competition with Whiteman, Vincent Lopez and the California Ramblers..."

        Ad 2:

        "Owing to the serious illness of Duke Ellington he will be unable to appear here with his famous colored orchestra."

        Ad 3:

        "Because of the sudden illness of Duke Ellington, he, and his famous colored orchestra will be unable to appear here this week."

        East Liverpool Review-Tribune, East Liverpool, Ohio:
        1. Announcement, 1926-09-18 p.3
        2. Ad, 1926-09-20
        3. 1926-09-21 p.14
        ..
        .djpNew
        added 2014-04-27
        1926 09 21
        Tuesday
        .East Liverpool, OhioCeramic TheaterCancelled appearance
        Other activities not documented
        ...
        .djp2014-04-27
        1926 09 22
        Wednesday
        .East Liverpool, OhioCeramic TheaterCancelled appearance
        Other activities not documented
        ...
        .djp2014-04-27
        1926 09 23
        Thursday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 09 24
        Friday
        ...activities not documented...
        ...
        1926 09 25
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club Kentucky
        203 West 49th St.
        The Club Kentucky reopened, beginning what Ken Steiner refers to as Ellington's fifth season there (Sept. 25 1926 to mid-March 1927). Bert Lewis was the MC until November 8.
        Morning Telegraph 1926-09-26:

        'Club Kentucky Opens with a Bang
        Duke Ellington and the Club Kentucky Orchestra made all those present want to dance incessantly.
         The club is all newly decorated and painted and is now a real small looking room and should come in for a good share of business this season.'

        Also in that edition:

        Broadway's Favorite
        BERT LEWIS
        And His Hospitality Gang at the
        CLUB
        KENTUCKY
        203 West 49th Street
        Just a Stone's Throw from Broadway
        on Seventh Avenue
        NEW YORK
        OPENED LAST NIGHT
        SATURDAY, SEPT. 25, 1926
        WITH
        BIGELOW & LEE
        Two Boys and a Piano
        JULIA GERITY
        Queen Of Rag Singers
        SHIRLEY DAHL
        The Lulu Belle Of Night Clubs
        EVA DOWLING
        New York's Popular Soprano
        ANN ALLISON
        Upon Her Toes
        OLIVE VERNALI
        Acrobatic Dancer
        Music by
        Duke Ellington Orchestra
        FOR RESERVATIONS
        PHONE "OSCAR"
        Circle 7457
        Management LEO BERNSTEIN


        Orchestra World:

        'The Kentucky Club, under the personal management of Leo Bernstein, opened for the fall season on Sept. 25th, with American and Oriental cuisine, wonderful entertainment and many surprises.
          Broadway's favorite, Bert Lewis, was on deck with his Hospitality Gang, consisting of Julia Gerity, rag singer; Hanley Sisters, "black bottomists"; Eva Dowling, soprano; Ann Allison, toe dancer; Bigelow and Lee, entertainers; Olive Vernall, acrobatic dancer, and, of course, hospitable Bert himself, with Jack Carroll at the piano.
          Duke Ellington is back again, burning 'em up with hot tunes. A wow of a band!'

        • Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, pp.31-32, quoting and reproducing ads, plugs and reviews in
          • New York Telegram 1926-09-25 ("Opening Tonight" ad)
          • Morning Telegraph
            • 1926-09-07, p.2
            • 1926-09-26, s.3 p.9
            • 1926-09-24
          • Variety 1926-09-29 p.52
        • Orchestra World November 1926, p. 13, courtesy Ralph Wondraschek
        .DEMS
        Vail.2011
        updated
        2014-08-23
        2018-09-12
        1926 09 26
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 09 27
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 09 28
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 09 29
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 09 30
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011

        October 1926

        1926 10 00...PERSONNEL CHANGE (doubtful)
        • New Desor page 1491 has Edgar Melvin ("The Lamb") Sampson, alto sax and violin, in the band from October 1926 to February 1927, based on him playing in the 1926 11 29, 1926 12 29, 1927 01 10 and 1927 02 03 recording sessions.
        • Sampson is not shown in the Timner IV attendance chart.
        • Aasland and Jepsen have Carney, Hardwick and Jackson in those sessions, not Sampson.
        • Hardwick is the only reed player identified in these session in Bakker.
        • MacHare has Sampson in the 1926 11 29, 1926 12 29, 1927 01 10, and 1927 02 03 sessions and shows him as a possible in the sessions of 1927 02 28, 1927 03 14, 1927 03 22, 1927 04 07 and 1927 04 30.
        • Girvan has him in the 1926 11 29, 1926 12 29, 1926 01 10 [sic], 1927 02 03, 1927 02 28, 1927 03 14, 1927 03 22, 1927 04 07, 1927 04 30, 1927 10 06 and 1927 10 26.

        Steven Lasker:

        'In "Who's Who of Jazz," John Chilton contends that Edgar Sampson "did a season with Duke Ellington at the Club Kentucky," which is probably based -- in the apparent absence of any contemporary press reference placing Sampson with Ellington -- on an Ellington band photo printed at MIMM p.74 and captioned "Orchard Beach, August 1926." The caption identifies one of the individuals as Sampson, but he doesn't look like Sampson to me and when I questioned Stanley Dance about it in the spring of 1991, he agreed the man didn't look like Sampson to him either, adding the identification came from Ellington, and he didn't feel it was his role to correct Duke, an answer which continues to strike me as unsatisfactory.

        Despite the forgoing, the violinist heard on "If You Can't Hold the Man You Love" by Evelyn Preer (1927 01 10) sounds like Edgar Sampson to me.'

        • New Desor vol.2
        • Emails Lasker-Palmquist
          • 2014-08-18
          • 2014-08-22
          • 2014-12-27
        ..
        .djpNew
        added 2012-10-25
        2014-08-22
        2014-12-28
        1926 10 01
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 02
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y..Columbia recording session (rejected)..DEMS
        ..Added
        2011
        1926 10 02
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 03
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 04
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 05
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 06
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 07
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 08
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 09
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 10
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 11
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 12
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 13
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 14
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.East 37th Street Offices
        9 East 37th St.
        Gennett recording session
        Alberta Jones acc. by The Ellington Twins, "Lulu Belle's Boyfriends"
        Hardwick, Ellington, Alberta Jones

        Titles recorded:
        • Lucky Number Blues
        • I'm Gonna Put You Right In Jail

        This was Ellington's first electrical recording session
        New Desor
        DE2604
        DEMS
        .djp2011
        updated
        2014-01-19
        2014-08-23
        2017-01-25
        1926 10 14
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 15
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 16
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 17
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 18
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 19
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 20
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 21
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 22
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 23
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 24
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 25
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 26
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 27
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 28
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 29
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 30
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 10 31
        Sunday
        Halloween
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011

        November 1926

        1926 11 01
        Monday
        ... Peripheral event
        Steven Lasker's research:

        The Columbia Phonograph Company purchased the OKeh-Odeon record division of the General Phonograph Corporation effective Nov.1. Columbia used the Western Electric recording system, which was vastly superior to the O-E process. Western Electric equipment was installed at OKeh by Nov.26.

        'At the time of the purchase, most OKeh recording activity was acoustical, with a few masters recorded electrically using a process developed in-house at OKeh (recordings so made bore an "O-E" matrix prefix) that was notably inferior to the Western Electric system.'

        Email Lasker-Palmquist 2014-08-18 .DEMS
        .djpNew
        added 2014-01-19
        1926 11 01
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 11 02
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 11 03
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 11 04
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 11 05
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 11 06
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 11 07
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25...
        ..2011
        1926 11 08
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Kentucky ClubNightclub residency with revue
        Morning Telegraph:

        'Tonight will mark the opening of the new show at the Club Kentucky... when Bert Farnum, formerly of the Cameo Club, will take up his duties as master of ceremonies. Those in the new bill are Mildred Melrose, and believe me she does an "exclusive" black bottom; Carol Atherton, with her ballads; Hotsy Totsy, a singing comedienne, and Billy West, who hands out blues from a hot griddle. The management have retained the speedy pair of entertainers, Bigelow and Lee, who make things merry between dances, and Sally Fields, a genuine favorite on the Kentucky floor.
          And the incoming show will also see a new hostess, or, rather, head hostess, in the person of Emily Young, recruited from the Kit Kat Club, Chicago.'

        ...
        .Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.322011
        updated
        2014-08-23
        1926 11 09
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 10
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 11
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 12
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 13
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 14
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 15
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 16
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 17
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 18
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 19
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 20
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 21
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 22
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 23
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 24
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 25
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 26
        Friday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 27
        Saturday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 28
        Sunday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 29
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y..PERSONNEL CHANGE
        New Desor had Louis Metcalf, trumpet (1905 02 28 - 1981 10 27) in the band from the fall of 1926 until June 1928.

        While he recorded with Ellington's band as early as 1926 11 29, Metcalf didn't become a member of the band until it went into the Cotton Club in December, 1927.
        Steven Lasker:
        'Metcalf told Leonard Kunstadt:
        "During this period [1926-27] I was filling recording gigs with Duke Ellington, beside other recordings (I was not a member of Duke's band yet)." .... "It was during my last month with [Sam] Wooding that I got the opportunity to double with Duke in regular engagements at the Cotton Club. This was the time that Duke increased his personnel from his original SIX of Bub Miley, Tricky Sam Nanton, Otto Hardwicke, Freddie [sic] Guy, Sonny Greer, Duke Ellington to ELEVEN MEN adding Johnny Hodges, Harry Carney, Barney Bigard, Wellman Braud and yours truly. Later on a 12th man was added in the person of Arthur Whetsel. After finishing my early theatre engagement with Wooding I went over to the Cotton Club 11 o'clock show to play the engagement. About this time Wooding was planning for another European trip and it could have been that I may have made the trip with him, but my eye was on the Duke.
          "My wish came true. I got my chance to become a regular member of Duke's band. I opened with Duke's first show at the Cotton Club. The band had a much fuller sound owing to the increase in personnel. This band was a futuristic outfit. He was 'way out' for those days and his was the sound to hear. I guess it was the dream of every young musician then to try to get a berth with Duke's outfit. These were the days of Duke's 'Black Beauty', 'Mooche', 'Swampy River' and 'Jubilee Stomp' and I had the luck to be on these great arrangements on phonograph recordings. I was keeping good company. However, it wasn't long before yours truly was on the move again."

        The full text of the interview is found here: http://archive.org/stream/RecordResearch46/46_djvu.txt
          Metcalf's first engagement with the band was apparently the Vocalion session of 1926 11 29. His first solos were on New Orleans Low-Down/Song of the Cotton Field (Vocalion 1086, rec. 1927 02 03). '
        • New Desor vol.2
        • Emails, Lasker-Palmquist
          • 2015-10-03, citing Kunstadt-Metcalf interview, Record Research 46, Oct 1962 pp. 7-8
          • 2016-01-20
          • 2016-12-23
        ..
        .djpNew
        added
        2012-10-23
        updated
        2015-10-06
        2016-01-21
        1926 11 29
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Brunswick Studio
        799 Seventh Ave.,Rm. #1
        Vocalion 3 hour afternoon recording session

        Tucker tells us this was the first session where Ellington recorded only his original material.

        Steven Lasker:

        '[This session] is the earliest documented association of Ellington and Mills. The ledger sheet for the date shows that the four songs recorded that date were all composed or co-composed by Ellington and copyrighted either by Gotham Music Co. or Jack Mills, Inc.'


        Duke Ellington And His Kentucky Club Orchestra
        Miley, Metcalf, Nanton, two unknown reeds, Hardwick, Ellington, Guy, Shaw, Greer

        Some discographies suggest one of the reeds was Sampson- see discussion at 1926 11 00.

        Steven Lasker:

        'I believe the reeds on the orchestra's records during the period 1926 11 29 to 1927 03 22 (1927 01 10 excluded) are probably Prince Robinson; Otto Hardwick; unknown third man. This conclusion was formed after reading Dick Bakker's discussion of the issue in his self-published "Duke Ellington on Microgoove -- Volume One -- 1923-1936" (Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands, 1977, pp10-11) that was amplified by opinions from a distinguished listening panel (Frank Dutton, Nigel Haselwood, Martin Richards and Eric Townley) that convened to further explore the issue. Their conclusion that Prince Robinson is the tenor player doubling clarinet during this period was presented in a series of articles by Frank Dutton that appeared in Jazz Journal (Nov 77, p14; Mar 78, p28; Apr 78, p32; May 78, p12; Sep 78, p47).'


        Titles recorded:
        • A Night In Harlem
        • East St. Louis Toodle-O
        • Who Is She?
        • Birmingham Breakdown
        Steven Lasker:

        'Jack Kapp was the recording manager for the date. The ledger shows "ng [no good] Kapp" against the two rejected titles, A Night in Harlem, and Who is She[?]. Three of the titles are shown on the ledger sheet as composed by Duke Ellington and copyright 1926 Gotham Music Co., 148 West 46th St., N.Y.C. The fourth, Who Is She[?],is shown as composed by Duke Ellington, Rousseau Simmons and Irving Mills and copyright 1926 Jack Mills, Inc. In actuality, neither of the rejected titles were ever submitted for copyright. Birmingham Breakdown and ESLTO bear a copyright date of 1927-02-10, not 1926, and finally, ESLTO was copyrighted in the names of Duke Ellington and Bub Miley, not Ellington alone.'

        The Vocalion label, formerly owned by the Aeolian Company, had been purchased on 1924 11 29 by the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, makers of Brunswick records, bowling and billiards products.
        East St. Louis Toodle-O was adopted as the band's theme song.

        Lasker:

        'ESLTO seems to have given way to Sepia Panorama as the opening theme, and Warm Valley as the closing theme, during the September/October 1940 Hotel Sherman stand. Those themes were replaced by Take the "A" Train during the band's January/February 1941 engagement at the Casa Manana. '


        Tucker suggests the title "East St. Louis Toodle-Oo" [sic] may have been chosen on this date because Vocalion wanted to increase record sales in the largely black section of East St. Louis, Ill., but Lasker quotes Variety:

        'PERLBERG's TOAD-DE-LO
        Chicago, June 8.
          Jonas Perlberg, dance promoter, has discovered a new dance, "the toad-de-lo" which he ran across in St. Louis.
          Perlberg is exploiting the new step in this city at the Rainbow Gardens.'

        and writes

        'The St. Louis metropolitan area is divided by the Mississippi River. West of the river is St. Louis, Missouri. East of the river is East St. Louis, Illinois. Both cities had significant populations of African Americans in 1926. East St. Louis was nationally notorious for the East St. Louis riots of 1917.'

        Mr. Lasker advises that Ellington pronounced the song title "toad-low" and the spelling East St. Louis Toodle-O was used on the label of the first recording issued (Vocalion 1064), the sheet music and the copyright submission. It was also in the record ads in Baltimore Afro-American and The Pittsburgh Courier.

        Spelling variations include:

        • East St. Louis Toodle-O
          • Vocalion A 1064 (Spanish subtitle: El Todel-o de East Saint Louis)
          • Brunswick 3480-A
          • Brunswick 6801
          • Columbia 953-D
          • Odeon 0-26993a
          • Parlophone A6483
          • Parlophone R2202
          • Diva 6046-G (made in Bridgeport, Conn.)
          • Velvet Tone 7072-V (made in Bridgeport, Conn.)
        • East St. Louis Toddle
          • Victor L 16007
        • East Saint Louis Toddle-Oo
          • Victor 21703-A
          • Victor 20-1531-A (Album P 138-1)
          • Bluebird B-6430-A
          • His Master's Voice B.8469
        • East Saint Louis Toodle-Oo
          • His Master's Voice B.4958
          • Romeo 612
          • Cameo 8182
          • Brunswick Collectors Series 80000 A
          • Brunswick (Warner-Brunswick,England)
        • East St. Louis Toolle-O [sic]
          • Diva 6046-G (made in Oakland, Cal.)
          • Velvet Tone 7072-V (made in Oakland, Cal.)
        • East St. Louis Tootlers
          • Vocalion B-230 (England)
        New Desor
        DE2605
        DEMS
        ..2011
        updated
        2014-01-19
        2014-08-19
        2015-02-06
        2017-03-24
        2017-03-25
        2017-03-26
        2017-04-11
        2017-05-16
        2017-12-22
        2018-08-12
        2018-08-24
        1926 11 29
        Monday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 08...
        ..2011
        1926 11 30
        Tuesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25
        New show opened, with Sally Fields, mistress of ceremonies "as usual," introduced Bigelow and Lee, singing comedians, Bob and Larry and their tiny piano, Billie West, singer, Mildred Melrose, Wanda Gill, the Three Ryans's, Sally's 'Hospitality Gang' and Duke Ellington's Washingtonian Orchestra.
        Steiner, Wild Throng Dances Madly in Cellar Club, p.33, quoting Morning Telegraph, 1926-12-02 p.7..
        ..2011
        updated 2014-08-23

        December 1926

        1926 12 01
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Probably 25 W.45th St.OKeh recording session
        Gussie Alexander, contralto, accompanied by Ellington and Hardwick
        Titles recorded:
        • They Say I Do It
        • Drifting from You Blues
        These recordings were rejected.
        Steven Lasker:

        'Gussie Alexander (a resident of Kansas City, Mo.) was the sister of Alberta Jones. See The Washingtonians: A Miscellany, p.57. Miss Alexander recorded Drifting from You Blues this date in two versions, an acoustical version backed by "Duke and Otto" and an electrical version backed by an unnamed pianist.'

        • Email Lasker-Palmquist
          • 2014-08-18
          • 2016-09-15
        • Timner IV p.2
        • Timner V p.2
        .DEMS
        .djp2011
        updated
        2014-01-19
        2014-09-01
        2016-09-15
        1926 12 01
        Wednesday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 30...
        ..2011
        1926 12 02
        Thursday
        .New York, N.Y.Club KentuckyNightclub residency with revue - see 1926 09 25 and 1926 11 30...
        .